CEMETERY PROJECT NOTES

 

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(1.)   One of the thirteen original colonies, South Carolina has had a rich and varied history. When Spanish and French explorers arrived in the area in the 16th century, they found a land inhabited by many small tribes of Native Americans, the largest of which were the Cherokees and the Catawbas. The first European attempts at settlement failed, but in 1670 a permanent English settlement was established on the coast near present day Charleston. The colony, named Carolina after King Charles I, was divided in 1710 into South Carolina and North Carolina. Settlers from the British Isles, France, and other parts of Europe built plantations throughout the coastal low country, growing profitable crops of rice and indigo. African slaves were brought into the colony in large numbers to provide labor for the plantations, and by 1720 they formed the majority of the population. The port city of Charleston became an important center of commerce and culture. The interior or upcountry, meanwhile, was being slowly settled by small farmers and traders, who pushed the dwindling tribes of Native Americans to the west.

 

By the time of the American Revolution, South Carolina was one of the richest colonies in America. Its merchants and planters formed a strong governing class, contributing many leaders to the fight for independence. More Revolutionary War battles and skirmishes were fought in South Carolina than any other state, including major engagements at Sullivan's Island, Camden, Kings Mountain , and Cowpens. South Carolina ratified the United States Constitution on May 23, 1788, becoming the eighth state to enter the union.

 

In the following years the state grew and prospered. With the invention of the cotton gin, cotton became a major crop, particularly in the upcountry. A new capital city, Columbia , was founded in the center of the state, reducing somewhat the political power of the lowcountry elite. Dissatisfaction with the federal government and its tariff policies grew during this period, however. In the 1820s South Carolinian John C. Calhoun developed the theory of nullification, by which a state could reject any federal law it considered to be a violation of its rights. Armed conflict was avoided during this period, but by 1860 tensions between the state and the federal government reached a climax. Unhappy over restrictions on free trade and about calls for the abolition of slavery, South Carolina seceded from the union on December 20, 1860, the first of the Southern states to do so. When Confederate troops fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor on April 12, 1861, the nation plunged into Civil War.

 

The Civil War and its aftermath were devastating for South Carolina. The state lost nearly one fifth of the white male population, and its economy was shattered. The final blow came in early 1865 when General William T. Sherman marched his troops through South Carolina, burning plantations and most of the city of Columbia. The Reconstruction period that followed the war was marked by general economic, social, and political upheaval. The former white leaders found themselves without money or political power, while the large population of freed slaves sought to improve their economic and political positions. When federal troops were withdrawn in 1877, white conservatives led by Governor Wade Hampton were able to take control of state government once again. The economy continued to suffer in the years that followed, however. Cotton prices were low, and the plantation system that had brought South Carolina such wealth was dead. Populist reforms in the 1890s brought more political power to small white farmers, but African Americans were disenfranchised and increasingly segregated.

 

By the beginning of the 20th century, South Carolina was starting to recover economically. The textile industry began to develop first, then in the years that followed other manufacturers moved into the state, providing jobs and economic stability. In recent years tourism has become a major industry, as travelers discovered the state's beaches and mountains. On September 21, 1989 Hurricane Hugo struck the coast, causing great damage to homes, businesses, and natural areas, but the state has made a remarkable recovery in the ensuing years. The second half of the 20th century also brought enormous change in the status of black South Carolinians. The civil rights movement of the 1960s brought a relatively peaceful end to segregation and legal discrimination. The most serious incident of this period occurred in 1968 at Orangeburg, where three black protesters were shot by state police. Two years later three African Americans were elected to the state legislature, and many others have subsequently served in state and local offices. As the century drew to a close, all of South Carolina's citizens were able to participate in the state's government and economy.  (Submitted by: SC State Library / Mary Morgan, 31-Mar-2008)

 

 

(2.)   The county/state histories were compiled by Mary L. Morgan from various published sources and from unpublished materials in the South Carolina State Library vertical file. The main published sources used were South Carolina: the WPA Guide to the Palmetto State (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1988), South Carolina Highway Marker Guide (Columbia, SC: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1992), Formation of Counties in South Carolina by Michael E. Stauffer (Columbia, SC: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1994), and Battles, Skirmishes, and Actions of the American Revolution in South Carolina by Terry W. Lipscomb (Columbia, SC: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1991).

 

 

(3.)   In 1978, our Department of Defense started to create a network of 24 satellites intended for military applications. This was called the Global Positioning System (GPS). They wanted to give field soldiers the ability to tell where they were located, in what direction they were going, and how far they had to go.  The satellite network was completed in 1994. In the 1980's, the government made it available for civilian use. 

 

(4.)   Project/Human Resources:

       

        Founders:  Gary F. Flynn (KE8FD) & Paul M. Kankula (NN8NN) in 01-Apr-2008

        Engineering Help by:  Jim Malone & Don Flynn (K5IMC)

        Typing Help by:  Vivian Parkman

 

        PAUL M. KANKULA, ( gcgenweb@bellsouth.net ), is a General Electric Company Electrical Sales Engineer retiree from the  

        Detroit MI area. Hobbies are computers, database compiling, website design, and ham radio (NN8NN).  Paul's title is

        USGenWeb County Coordinator and he manages the SC Cemetery GPS Project, along with the Anderson-Oconee-Pickens

        County GenWeb Projects.  His 3 County Projects contain 100,000+ Tombstone Inscriptions, 350,000+ Vital Records and

        8,000+ Cemetery/Church Images, as of Mar-2008 - all available on-line!
 


        GARY L. FLYNN, ( garyflynn44@yahoo.com ), is a United Parcel Service retiree from the Columbus OH area. His hobbies

        are volunteer work, hiking and ham radio (KE8FD).  Gary manages all our Cemetery GPS Mapping and cemetery finding

        efforts.  He has GPS identified over 10,000 cemetery locations!
 

(5.)   Reference Resources: 

 

        ePodunk, Find-a-Grave, I Dream of Genealogy, Interment.net, National Register, USGenWeb  

        Tombstone Projects, USGenWeb Project Archives, USGenWeb County Homesteads, Historical 

        Societies, Genealogical Societies, GNIS-Cemetery Queries, GNIS-Maps, Researcher E-mails, USGS-

        Topo Maps, Street Atlas Mapping Software, Google Earth Maps, Google Mapping Links, County

        Query/Message Boards/Forums.

 

(6.)   Individual webpage hit counters installed 14-Dec-2009

 

(7.)   If your searching for an individual or have a specific question regarding a cemetery, it's suggested that you try using the following Help Links.