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King's Pocket-book of Providence, R.I.

Moses King, Cambridge, Mass., 1882. Tibbitts, Shaw & Co., Providence, RI
p. 23 - 24.

CHEAPSIDE was an old-time district wherein located the principal dry-goods stores.  It was famous with the young ladies all over the State, fifty years ago.  It comprised the part of the present N. Main St. that is in the vicinity of Market Sq.

CHEMISTS' AND DRUG CLERKS' ASSOCIATION, THE RHODE ISLAND, formed March 7, 1882, holds monthly meetings for discussion, and transaction of business, at its rooms, 128 N. Main St.   O. D. Ballert, sec'y.

CHERUSKA LODGE OF HARUGARI.  See German Secret Societies.

CHESTNUT-ST. M. E. CHURCH, erected in 1822, cor. Clifford and Chestnut Sts., is the oldest of its denomination in the city.  The first house of the society stood on Aborn St., cor. Washington, and was dedicated in 1816.  Its steeple was once blown down, but was rebuilt and improved in appearance.

CHICKEN-FOOT ALLEY is the suggestive name applied to the combination of three short and narrow lanes, leading from S. Main to S. Water St., nr. Transit St.  It is crowded with old and dilapidated tenement-houses.

CHILDREN'S FRIEND SOCIETY.  See Children's Home.

CHILDREN'S HOME, Tobey St., was built in 1863, under the auspices of the Prov. Children's Friend Soc., which was org. in 1835, through the efforts of the late Harriet Ware 'to provide for the support and education of the indigent children, not otherwise provided for, and who for want of parental care are in a suffering or dangerous condition'.  Since the formation, 1,300 children have received its care.  For several years the 'Home' was at the cor. of Broad and Stewart Sts.  The present spacious and confortable brick building has 64 inmates, while 30 children under the charge of the society are placed out in families.  The institution is supported by contributions from the various churches, and by the income derived from investment of legacies, bequests, and donations.

CHIMES, GRACE CHURCH.  The only set of chimes in the city is that belonging to Grace Church.  These bells, 16 in number, were hung March 30, 1861, and played for the first time on the following day, Easter Sunday.  They were donated by various individuals and corporations, whose names they bear, including two military organizations: the First Light Infantry and the Marine Corps of Artillery.  The Infantry bell was given with the condition that the chimes should always be rung on Sept. 10, the anniversary of the battle of Lake Erie, or 'Perry's Victory'.  The bells are also rung on all national holidays.

CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS.  See Young Men's Christian Asso'n, and Women's Christian Asso'n.

p. 24 - 28.

CHURCHES.  There are 77 church edifices in Providence and nearly 90 societies meeting for religious worship.  The following is a complete list of the churches and their pastors, arranged alphabetically by denominations: --

African Methodist Episcopal.
Allen Chapel, A St., org'd 1877.  C. Wright, pastor.
Bethel Meeting, nr. Thayer St., org'd 1839.   G. C. Booth, pastor.
Mount Zion, 76 Lilac St.., org'd 1862.  Geo. H. Washington, pastor.
Zion, Gaspee, nr. Smith St., org'd 1831.  J. H. Anderson, pastor.

Baptist.
Broadway, Broadway, cor. Valley St., org'd 1865, J. V. Osterhout, pastor.
Central, High, cor. Burrill St., org'd 1805.  Richard Mongue, pastor.
Condon-st. (colored), Congdon, nr. Angell St., org'd 1840.  J. W. Mitchell, pastor.
Cranston-st., Cranston, cor. Paine St., org'd 1870.  M. H. Bixby, pastor.
First, N. Main, bet. Waterman and Thomas Sts., org'd 1639.  T. Edwin Brown, pastor.
Fourth, Scott, cor. Bacon St., org'd 1823.  J. M. Taylor, pastor.
Friendship-st., Friendship, cor. Prince St., org'd 1854.  E. P. Farnham, pastor.
Jefferson-st., Jefferson, cor. Common St., org'd 1847.  W. C. Richmond, pastor.
Roger Williams, Wanskuck, org'd 1877.  E. B. Eddy, pastor.
South, Potter's Ave., cor. Plain St., org'd 1860.  T. E. Bartlett, pastor.
Stewart-st., Stewart, cor. Pond St., org'd 1851.  Wm. M. Lisle, pastor.
Union, East, cor. John St., org'd 1878. [continues org'n of Brown-st. Church, org'd in 1855.] E. H. Johnson, pastor.

Christian.
Christian, Broad, cor. Fenner St., org'd 1834.  C. A. Tillinghast, pastor.

Congregational Trinitarian.
Beneficent, Broad, nr. Chestnut St., org'd 1743.  Jas. G. Vose, pastor.
Central, Benefit, nr. College St., org'd 1852. George Harris, pastor.
Elmwood, Greenwich, cor. Oakland St., org'd 1851.  J. B. Headley, pastor.
Free Evangelical, Richmond, cor. Pine St., org'd 1843.  H. H. Northrop, pastor.
North, Walling St., org'd 1865.  A. F. Keith, pastor.
Pilgrim, Harrison, nr. High St., org'd 1869.  Thos. Laurie, pastor.
Plymouth, Richardson, nr. Broad St., org'd 1878.  H. B. Roberts, pastor.
Union, Broad, nr. Stewart St., org'd 1871.  A. J. F. Behrends, pastor.

Episcopal.
Bishop, Rt. Rev. Thomas M. Clark, Providence.
All Saints' Memorial, High, cor. Stewart St., org'd 1846.  Daniel Henshaw, rector.
Christ, Oxford, cor. Eddy St., org'd 1864.  Samuel H. Webb, rector.
Church of the Epiphany, Potter's Ave., nr. Greenwich St., org'd 1868.  H. D. Bassett, rector.
Church of the Messiah, High, cor. Valley St., org'd 1854.  D. G. Rice, rector.
Church of the Redeemer, N. Main, cor. Riley St., org'd 1859.  C. H. Wheeler, rector.
Church of the Saviour, Benefit, cor. Transit St., org'd 1862.  H. U. Monro, rector.
Grace, Westminster, cor. Mathewson St., org'd 1829.  D. H. Greer, rector.
St. Gabriel's, 10 Carroll St., org'd 1875.  A. B. Carver, rector.
St. James, Gesler, below Courtland St., org'd 1867.  W. B. F. Jackson, rector.
St. John's, N. Main, cor. Church St., org'd 1723.  C. A. L. Richards, rector.
St. Stephen's, George, near Thayer St., org'd 1839.  J. W. Colwell, rector.
St. Thomas Chapel, Eagle Park, org'd 1873.  A. B. Carver, rector.

Free Religion.
Free Religious Society, Conservatory hall, Aborn St., org'd 1874.  F. A . Hinckley, pastor.

Free-Will Baptists.
First, High St. (Olneyville), org'd 1828.  A. L. Gerrish, pastor.
Greenwich-st., Greenwich, cor. W. Friendship St., org'd 1870.  Hector Canfield, pastor.
Park-st., Park, cor. Jewett St., org'd 1851.  J. T. Ward, pastor.
Roger Williams, High, cor. Knight St., org'd 1830.  A. T. Salley, pastor.
Second (colored), Pond St., org'd 1834.  J. D. Veney, pastor.

Friends.
Friends' Society, N. Main, cor. Meeting St., org'd 1701.

Jewish.
Congregation Sons of Israel and David, 98 Weybosset St., org'd 1877.  ____ _____, pastor.

Methodist Episcopal.
Presiding Elder, Rev. Micah J. Talbot, D.D., Providence District.
Asbury, Hewes, nr. N. Main St., org'd 1868.  H. B. Cady, pastor.
Broadway, 103 Broadway, org'd 1851.  C. L. Goodell, pastor.
Chestnut-st., Chestnut, cor. Clifford St., org'd 1798.  Joseph Hollingshead, pastor.
Cranston-st., Odd Fellows' hall, 441 Cranston St., org'd 1882.  W. H. Stetson, pastor.
Hope-st., Hope, cor. Power St., org'd 1832.  W. V. Morrison, pastor.
Mathewson-st., Mathewson, nr. Westminster St., org'd 1848.  Wm. T. Worth, pastor.
St. Paul's, Plain, cor. Swan St., org'd 1856.  T. J. Everett, pastor.
Trinity, Broad, cor. Major St., org'd 1859.  G. W. Anderson, pastor.

Missions.
America-st., (Baptist), America, cor. Asia St.
Branch-ave. (Baptist), Ashton St.
Broadway (Methodist Episcopal), 1055 High St.
Free Baptist (Free-will Baptist), Potter's Ave.
Gorton Hall, Christian (Methodist Episcopal), Potter's Ave., nr. Cranston St.
Hope, S. Main, cor. James St.
India Point (Baptist), Tockwotton St.
Jefferson-st. Church, Smith, cor. Ruggles St.
Mt. Pleasant (Baptist), Chalkstone, nr. Academy Ave.
Union Sea and Land, 'ashore and afloat'.  Rev. C. H. Plummer, 108 John St., sup't.

New Jerusalem.
New Jerusalem Church, Broad, cor. Linden St., org'd 1840.  Warren Goddard, jun., pastor.

Presbyterian.
First, Clifford, cor. Claverick, org'd 1872.  _____  _____, pastor.
United Presbyterian, Broadway, nr. Sabin St., org'd 1847.  M. S. McCord, pastor.

Roman Catholic.

  • Bishop, Rt. Rev. Thomas F. Hendricken, D. D.
  • Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul, High, cor. Fenner St., org'd 1837.  Edifice not completed; services are held at the Pro-Cathedral.
  • Church of the Assumption, Potter's Ave.,. nr. Cranston St., org'd 1871.  M. M. Clune, pastor.
  • Church of the Immaculate Conception, West River, cor. Capwell St., org'd 1857.  John Keegan and John E. Gormley, pastors.
  • Pro-Cathedral, Broad, cor. Foster St.  Thomas F. Hendricken, bishop; J. V. Brennan, J. F. McDonough, James Coyle, William Stang, pastors.
  • St. Edward's, Geneva, org'd 1867.  James A. Finnigan, pastor.
  • St. John's, Atwell's Ave., cor. Sutton St., org'd 1870.  J. J. McCabe, J. C. Walsh, pastors.
  • St. John's French, Harrison, opp. Lester St., org'd 1878.  C. P. Gaboury, pastor.
  • St. Joseph's, Hope, cor. Arnold St., org'd 1853.  Wm. B. Cleary, Thos. M. Sheerin, and John B. Nagle, pastors.
  • St. Mary's, Broadway, cor. Barton St., org'd 1853.  R. J. Sullivan, W. B. Meenan, James Murphy, pastors.
  • St. Michael's, Prairie Ave., org'd 1867.  M.A. Wallace, Michael J. Cooke, pastors.
  • St. Patrick's, State, nr. Smith St., org'd 1841.  C. Hughes, John Harty, pastors.

  • Second Advent.
    Second-Advent Meeting.  A few persons of this denomination meet at Bassett
    Hall, 491 High St.

    Swedish.
    Swedish Christian Association, 70 Weybosset St.
    Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Emmanuel Church, Slade Hall, Washington, cor. Eddy St.

    Unitarian.
    First Congregational, Benefit, cor. Benevolent St., org'd 1728.  Thos. R. Slicer, pastor.
    Olney-street Congregational, Olney, opp. Pratt St., org'd 1878.  Alfred Manchester, pastor.
    Westminster Congregational, Mathewson, nr. Westminster St., org'd 1828. Augustus Woodbury, pastor.

    Universalist.
    Church of the Mediator, Cranston, cor. Burgess St., org'd 1840.  H. W. Rugg, pastor.
    First, Greene, cor. Washington St., org'd 1821.  H. I. Cushman, pastor.

    Various Denominations.
    Advent Christian, Hammond St., nr. Division, org'd 1840.  N. P. Cook, pastor.
    African Union, Clayton St., org'd 1856.  D. Johnson, pastor.
    Church of the Yahveh, Pearl, cor. Lockwood St., org'd 1850. Lemuel Osler, pastor.
    Gospel Free Church (Independent), Unity Hall, 275 High St., org'd 1881.  A. H. Sweetser, pastor.
    Re-organized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 281 High St., org'd 1869.  F. M. Sheehy, elder.
    Union American Methodist Episcopal Church (colored), L. V. St., org'd 1874; inc. June 1, 1874.  W. A. Jackson, pastor.
    Seamen's Bethel, Wickenden, near Bridge St., org'd 1841.  E. S. Burroughs, pastor.

    p. 28 - 31.

    CHURCHILL MEMORIAL FUND was established in 1881, under the auspices of the Rhode Island Women's Club, which desired to testify by some enduring memorial its sorrow for the loss of Mrs. Elizabeth K. Churchill, who died March 7, 1881, and its grateful appreciation, not only of her enthusiastic devotion to the intersts of the Club, but of her entire life-work, which was an unceasing effort to right wrongs, and help on in every way the truest welfare of others.  The income of the Fund is expended in the interest of the working women of Providence, under the direction of the officers of the R. I. Women's Club, and thus far has been appropriated for a course of lectures to women of this class, a work started in 1880 by Mrs. Churchill. These lectures, for which a nominal fee is asked, consist of practical talks on the various concerns of daily life, and cannot fail to be of use to those who lack proper training for the accomplishment of everyday duties and for prompt action in sudden emergencies.

    CINCINNATI, RHODE ISLAND SOCIETY OF, org. in 1783 and chartered in 1814, was formed to preserve in some permanent form a record of those early patriots who were engaged in the struggle for American independence.  The society was composed of 71 original members, chiefly army officers,whose descendants inherited the right of membership.  A portion of the hereditary members, about 25, met in December, 1877, and org. with the purpose of imbuing new life and vigor into the society.  Sec'y, Henry E. Turner, M.D., Newport.

    CITY BUILDING (new).  -  See City Hall.

    CITY BUILDING (old), Market Sq., built, by lottery, for a market-house in 1773.  Third story added by St. John's Lodge (Masonic) in 1797.  The building was gradually absorbed for municipal purposes, and afforded cramped accommodation for the various city offices until their removal to the new City Hall in 1878.  The building is leased for a term of ten years from Jan. 1, 1880, to the Board of Trade.

    CITY GOVERNMENT is vested in a mayor, 10 aldermen, and 40 councilmen, chosen by 10 wards.  Annual election in November.  Offices for the most part in City Hall, Dorrance St., at the head of Exchange Pl.

    CITY HALL, a magnificent granite building in the Renaissance style, erected at a cost of $1,034,000, on the sq. bounded by Dorrance, Washington, Eddy, and Fulton Sts.  Here most of the departments of the City government have their offices.  The excavation of the lot began Oct. 19, 1874; corner-stone laid June 24, 1875; dedicated Nov. 14, 1878.  The building is very complete in its appointments, and is open to the public from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. (Saturdays, 9 A.M. to 3 P.M.)  Permission must be obtained from the City Messenger in the building to see the Reception Room, Battery Room (Aldermen's and Council Chambers when either board is not in session), and to ascend to the dome - 127 ft. high, from which the most extensive view of the city can be obtained.  The main entrance is on Dorrance St., above which, on a pediment of the second story, is a granite bust of Roger Williams.  In front is the Soldiers' Monument and Exchange Pl.

    CITY OFFICERS FOR 1882:
    City Election, fourth Tuesday in November.
    Mayor.  --  Wm. S. Hayward.
    City Clerk. --  Henry V. A. Joslin.
    City Auditor.  --  Jas. M. Cross.
    City Treasurer.  --  Benj. Tripp.
    City Solicitor.  --  Nicholas Van Slyck.
    Judge of the Municipal Court.  --  Amasa S. Westcott.
    Clerk of the Municipal Court.  --  George B. Nichols.
    Chief of Police.  -- Benjamin H. Child.
    Supt. of Health and City Registrar.  --  Edwin M. Snow.
    Recorder of Deeds.  --  Gustavus A. Williamson.
    Chief Engineer of the Fire Dep't.  --  Oliver E. Greene.
    Fire-Marshal.  --  E. M. Jenckes.
    Supt. of Public Buildings.  --  Obediah Slade.
    Sup't of Lights.  --  Samuel B. Swan.
    City Engineer.  --  Samuel M. Gray.
    Supt. of Public Schools.  --  Daniel Leach.
    Harbor-Master.  --  Daniel Joslin.
    Overseer of the Poor.  --  George W. Wightman.
    Sealer of Weights and Measures.  --  Franklin Olds.
    City-Sergeant and Messenger.  --  Edward S. Rhodes.

    CITY REGISTRAR.  --  See Sup't of Health.

    CITY SEAL.  --  April 6, 1834, the City Council, then in the second year of existence, passed the following ordinance:  'Be it ordained by the City Council of the city of Providence that the following be the device of the seal of said city, to wit:  around the margin of the same a raised circle containing the words 'Seal of the city of Providence'; within which circle a device referring to the landing of the first settlers in Providence, representing a point of land on the bank of the river covered with forest-trees, beneath which a group of savages are awaiting the approach of a canoe containing Roger Williams and his companions; above which device, and immediately within the inner circle aforesaid, the words 'What cheer?' ' This seal has, in the course of time, undergone some modifications.  It will be noticed that the 'raised circle' now contains in the upper half thereof the words 'Seal of the city of Providence' and in the lower half thereof the words, 'Founded 1636' and 'Incorporated 1832'.  This arrangement of the words does away with the 'narrower circle'' spoken of.  The central device has also been somewhat altered, and now represents the canoe containing Roger Williams as arrived at Slate Rock, upon which are grouped the Indians in friendly attitudes.

    CLAM-BAKES.  --  These essenially Rhode-Island institutions may be patronized at most of the shore resorts along the bay. The bake is usually made in primitive fashion on a rude floor of stones, previously heated by a wood fire built upon it.  A thin layer of seaweed  is put upon the heated stones; then the clams are piled up, and spread with another thin layer of seaweed.  The whole is then covered with canvas to retain the heat and steam.  Green corn, potatoes, and other vegetables, together with fried clams, fish, lobster, and watermelon, are furnished as accessories to the clam dinner, and uniform price of which is 50 cts.

    CLEANSING is one of the most important departments of Lewando's French Dye House, 270 Westminster St.  The process employed by this house is the invention of M. Jolly of Paris; and Lewando, it is said, 'has the whole field of New England to himself'.  It was introduced here by Lewando, and is carried on at the present time by two Frenchmen who served under Jolly in Paris.  It is known as the dry process, and by its means all the most delicate fabrics, laces, feathers, silks, etc., can be cleansed without injury to the texture or colors.

    CLOTHING is in the present state of civilization one of the requisistes of human comfort and one of the chief adornments of mankind.  And clothing, ready-made or made to order, can be obtained nowhere in the world to better advantage than at the establishment of Macullar, Parker, & Company, 112 Westminster St.  A brief sketch of this firm is given elsewhere under the heading, 'Macullar, Parker, & Company.'

    CLUB-HOUSES.  --  Hope Club, 292 Benefit St.; Rhode-Island Club, 171 Broad St.; Union Club, 90 South Main St. Admission only on invitation by members.

    COMMERCIAL CLUB, was org. in 1878 to advance the mercantile and manufacturing innterests of Providence by means of social intercourse and the interchange of opinion among the members.  It holds monthly dinners. The prest. is Wm. B. Weeden; sec'y, Wm. P. Chapin, and treas. Herbert W. Ladd.

    COMMERCIAL STATISTICS, 1881.

    COMMON COUNCIL FOR 1882.
    J. Carter Brown Woods, Prest.
    Daniel F. Hayen, Clerk.
    Ward 1. -- George L. Claflin, Stillman White, Nathan H. Baker, Wm. T. Nicholson.
    Ward 2. --  J. Carter B. Woods, John M. Rounds, Pardon Wilbur, Wm. B. Weeden.
    Ward 3.  --  Thomas A. Millett, Fitz Herbert Peabody, Arnold Green, Wm. Ames.
    Ward 4.  --  James McNally, Frederick E. Anthony, George R. Phillips, D. Russell Brown.
    Ward 5.  --  James H. Tower, John W. Angell, James G. Whitehouse, Henry F. Richards.
    Ward 6.  --  Fred. I. Marcy, Alfred S. Potter, Edward R. Wheeler, Joseph S. G. Cobb
    Ward 7.  --  John W. Tillinghast, Benjamin E. Kinsley, Joseph H. Fanning, William A. Spicer.
    Ward 8.  --  Alfred A. Harrington, Franklin A. Chase, Henry C. Clark, Daniel Perrin.
    Ward 9.  --  George H. Slade, John McAuslan, James K. Trask, John McWilliams.
    Ward 10.  --  James B. Foyer, John Morris, John Cassidy.

    p. 31 - 34.

    CONSTITUTION HILL, a slope of which Stamper's Hill is a continuation, is the part of N. Main St. bet. Mill and Benefit St.

    CORK HILL was the once familiar title of what is now known as the Brook-st. District.  It received this name presumably from the nationality of its inhabitants.

    COTTON MANUFACTURE.  --  The earliest attempt to manufacture cotton in Providence was about the year 1788.  Daniel Anthony, Andrew Dexter, and Lewis Peck formed a partnership to make 'homespun cloth'; and from an English model obtained in Beverly, Mass., they constructed a spinning-jenny, 'which was first set up in a private house, and afterwards removed to the market-house chamber in Providence and operated there.'  Soon after they constructed a carding-machine and a spinning-frame, and also had a loom built under the direction of Joseph Alexander, a native of Scotland.  All this machinery was crude, and did not work well.  The spinning-frame was removed to Pawtucket, and operated by water-power, and soon after was sold to Moses Brown of Providence.  William Almy and Smith Brown, under the patronage of Moses Brown, with this machine and others they had purchased from various parties, carried on the manufacture in Pawtucket; but, owing to the clumsiness of the machinery, found it unprofitable.  In 1790, when affairs were in this condition, a young Englishman named Samuel Slater, who was skilled in the cotton manufacture, and had then been but a few months in the country, was engaged by Moses Brown to come to Pawtucket.  Slater found the machines of Almy & Brown too imperfect to work satisfactorily, so he proceeded to construct machines after the English models.  Having no plans or drawings, he had to rely entirely on his memory; yet after much labor and many discouragements he finally succeeded.  This was the first thoroughly successful attempt to manufacture cotton in America with the machines invented by Arkwright and Hargreaves.  Almy, Brown, & Slater formed a partnership, and carried on their business at Pawtucket for many years, and also built factories on other available sites in the neighborhood. Notwithstanding the fact that the manufacture was begun in Pawtucket, Providence has reaped the greatest benefit from it.  Providence was the natural centre of operations, and became the market where the buying and selling, the making and importing of supplies for the factories, were conducted.  To this fact, more than any other, is due the growth of the city.  Under the direction of Slater and his partners, and the men they had trained, many factories were built on all the streams centring at Providence, and mills were also built in adjoining districts, in Massachusetts and Connecticut.  In 1811 there were 17 cotton-mills in Providence and vicinity, and 5 in course of construction; and in adjoining towns in Rhode Island there were 8, and 5 being erected.  In 1812, within a radius of 30 miles from Providence there were 53 factories -- 33 in Rhode Island, and 20 in Massachusetts.  Since then the business has constantly increased in amount.  The offices of many companies operating mills in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and elsewhere, are located in Providence.  In 1860, 77 cotton-mills located outside the city limits were owned in Providence.  The chief mills within the city limits are:  Providence Steam Mill, established by Samuel Slater and others in 1827; Oriental Mills, Admiral cor. Whipple St.; Elmwood Cotton Mills, Mawney St.; the factories of B. B. & R. Knight on Carpenter St. and Broad St.; and the factories of the Fletcher Manuf. Co., Charles St. (See article on Manufactories.)

    COURTS.

    COURT HOUSE OF PROVIDENCE COUNTY, Benefit, cor. College St., is an imposing structure of Danvers face-brick, with Connecticut brown-stone trimmings, and an underpinning of Quincy granite.  The building, begun in June, 1875, was dedicated Dec. 18, 1877.  Its  style is based upon the French Gothic order of architecture.  There is much artistic carving noticeable, particularly upon the corbel of the oriel window on College St., facing Market Sq., and around the capitals of the polished granite columns at the porches.  Above the main entrance rises a tower 200 ft. in height, which contains a fine clock.  The interior of the building is handsomely fitted up, and comprises rooms for the common pleas and supreme courts, offices of the judges, clerks of the courts, and other county officers, waiting rooms, and other apartments.  On the second floor is a law-library, ceiled throughout, and capable of accommodating 50,000 vols.  The cost of the building was about $225,000, and with land and furniture $175,000 more. Stone & Carpenter, architects.

    COVE, THE, is an elliptical basin, about a mile in circumference, lying in the geographical centre of the city.  It was formerly an irregular body of water, navigable for vessels of considerable tonnage; but from time to time its area has been reduced by filling in the surrounding low lands.  Its sides are built up with stone, and finished by an iron fence.  The basin is fed by two small mill-streams, the Woonasquatucket and Moshassuck Rivers; and the Providence River flows outward to the south.  Mud accumulates here very rapidly, owing to the refuse flowing down from the mills, and to sewers which empty here.  Dredging has been attempted at great expense, and with unsatisfactory results; and propositions for converting the Cove and surrounding lands wholly to railroad purposes are under discussion.

    COVE LANDS, THE, are large tracts of territory, lying N. and N. W. of the Cove basin, which were formerly flowed by tide-water.  Most of this has been filled in for railroad and building purposes, but quite an area of marshy lowlands still remains.  They city's right to these lands was purchased from the State in 1875, at a cost of $200,000.

    COVE PROMENADE, THE, encircles the Cove, and has a general width of 80 ft. It is adorned by fine shade-trees, provided with comfortable seats, and in the evening is well-lighted by numerous gas-lamps; but the effluvia rising from the Cove at low-tide, and its proximity to the railroads, render it an unpopular place of resort.

    CUSTOM CLOTHING, or 'merchant-tailoring', is one of the chief departments of Macullar, Parker, & Company's establishment, which is described in its alphabetical place.

    CUSTOM HOUSE, THE, Weybosset, cor. Custom-House St., is a fine granite structure, three stories in height, opened in 1857.  It cost about $225,000. Here upon the upper floors may be found the Internal-Revenue Office, the United-States Court Room, and rooms for the judges and other government officials.  The lower story is devoted to the uses of the Post-Office Department.  This department re-arranged and refurnished its quarters in 1880, putting in at that time, among other improvements, over 1,500 brass letter-boxes, secured by Yale locks.

    DALRYMPLE DRINKING FOUNTAIN is an ornamental work of iron in Roger Williams Park, presented to the city by Clark Dalrymple in 1881.

    DEBT OF PROVIDENCE.  --  See Providence.

    DENTAL SOCIETY, THE RHODE ISLAND, established in 1878.  Its object is 'to create a more fraternal intercourse, to facilitate the interchange of ideas',  and to promote the progress of the theory and practice of the dental profession.  Any respectable practicing dentist, above the age of 21 years, may become a member of the association.  The society's library contains the latest dental works and reviews.  Dr. A. W. Buckland was the first president of this organization, which holds quarterly meetings, at which papers are read and discussed, and the general business of the society transacted.  L. L. Buckland, D.D.S., sec'y.

    DESIGN, RHODE-ISLAND SCHOOL OF, 283 Westminster St. (Hoppin Homestead Bl'd'g), promotes the advancement of art-education by instructing artisans and students in drawing, painting, designing, modelling, etc., at cost. Lecture and art exhibitions are given.  Instruction in art-needlework is also furnished.  About 195 students attend its day and evening sessions. Open from October to May.  E. Rose, principal.

    DEXTER ASYLUM, Hope St., testifies to the generosity of the late Ebenezer Knight Dexter, who, at his decease in 1824, left about 40 acres of land and $60,000, to establish a home for the poor of Providence.  The building, of painted brick with granite basement, consists of a main building five stories high, and two wings each three stories in height.  Beside the necessary rooms for inmates, sup't and family, and for reception-rooms, it contains a chapel in the third story.  The well-cultivated lands, which furnish fine vegetables for the city market, are surrounded by a stone wall, 8 ft. high, and 3 ft. thick at the base, -- according to the conditions of the bequest.  On the Hope-st. side, the wall within a few years has been lowered, and finished by a capping of granite.  The institution, apparently admirably conducted, accommodates over a hundred inmates.  John M. Knowles, sup't.

    DEXTER DONATION, THE, comprises the Dexter Training-Ground, the land on which the Dexter Asylum now stands, and other property, real and personal devised to the town in 1824 by Ebenezer Knight Dexter, for the support and maintenance of the poor.

    DEXTER TRAINING-GROUND, a part of the 'Dexter Donation', was reserved and appropriated by the will of Ebenzer Knight Dexter, for a training-ground. It is a grassy enclosure of about 9 1/12 acres, west of Dexter St., near High St., and is now seldom used for military purposes.

    p. 34 - 36.

    DISPENSARIES.
    Homeopathic Dispensary, rear of 307 Westminster St., furnishes gratuitous medical advice from 11 A.M. to 1 P.M., daily, and surgical advice once a week in the same hours.  When medicine is furnished, a small charge is made. A dental department for poor people is also maintained in connection with this charity.

    Providence Dispensary, The, furnishes medical advice and medicines free of charge to parties supplied by subscribers with tickets.  J. B. Branch, sec'y, 20 Market Sq.

    DODGE'S BOSTON DYE-HOUSE, established many years ago, and familiar to all Providence people, was succeeded a few years since by the Lewando's French Dye-House, which has its office at 270 Westminster St., adjoining Music Hall.

    'DORR'S HILL', or 'Dorr's Lane' as it was formerly called, named from the Dorr estate situated upon it, is a part of Bowen St., bet. Benefit and Condon Sts.  It is so steep as to be impassable for vehicles, rising as it does 20 1-7 ft. in each 100 ft.; its summit at Condon St. is 164 ft. above high-water mark.

    DRINKING-FOUNTAIN, on Angell St., nr. Brown, was a gift to the city by Frank E. Richmond.

    DRINKING-FOUNTAINS.  --  For whatever it may possess in the way of ornamental and artistic drinking-fountains, the city is indebted to the generosity of private individuals.  A few pumps are still standing in the older portions of the city, relics of a past generation; and, since the introduction of Pawtuxet water, faucets have been attached to various lamp-posts centrally located; while, for the convenience of horses, iron drinking-throughs of excellent construction have been distributed throughout the city.  See Athenaeum Drinking-Fountain, Dalrymple Drinking-Fountain, and Drinking Fountain.

    DYEING, with the most perfect result in all the various branches, is done by the long-established Lewando's French Dye-House, office 270 Westminster St. No one not familiar with the large works at Watertown, Mass., can form any idea of the innumerable sizes, shapes, and uses of the articles which are cleansed and dyed there.  The process peculiar to the house obviates all necessity of taking to pieces the garments, which was formerly done at great cost and oftentimes with serious damage.  The dyeing of all goods that can be dyed by modern processes is done in the most acceptable manner by the Lewando Dye-House.

    DYERVILLE, chiefly a manufacturing village, belonged formerly to the town of North Providence, but now forms a part of the Tenth Ward.

    EAST SIDE is a name applied to the territory lying E. of the Prov. and Moshassuck Rivers.  It rises abruptly from the river, in some places to a height of 200 ft.  Brown University, Dexter Asylum, Hope Reservoir, Friends' School, Prospect Terrace, Butler Hospital, Swan-Point and North cemeteries, and many elegant private residences, are in this district.  It is the oldest portion of the city.  Area, 3 sq. miles.

    ELEVATORS FOR PEOPLE.  --  The introduction of vertical railways in buildings has already gained such a foothold in this and all other cities that few people realize how recently they were introduced.  It is only ten years ago since the first passenger-elevator was made use of in Providence. This was in the Wheaton & Anthony Building, at No. 65 Westminster St. This was soon followed by one in the Woods Building, cor. of College and Main Sts.  Both were built by the Whittier Machine Co. of Boston, who have since built many fine elevators for noteworthy buildings throughout the United States.  In Providence, among the buildings in which are elevators made by the Whittier Co., are the Vaughan Building, Callender, McAuslan, & Troup, Equitable Insurance Co., Dyer-street Block, Daniels Building, and Woods Building.

    ELKS, BENEVOLENT AND PROTECTIVE ORDER OF, Providence Lodge, No. 14, instituted in 1881, holds regular Sunday-evening meetings at its rooms, 21 Weybosset.  It is a secret benevolent organization.  Its membership exceeds 100, and is confined chiefly to actors and friends of the theatrical profession, in common with lodges of this order in other cities.

    ELMHURST.  See Female Academy of the Sacred Heart.

    ELMWOOD is the local name of that part of the Ninth Ward W. of Broad St. This district, in the southern part of the city, was received from Cranston in 1868.  The building formerly used as the Cranston town-clerk's office is still standing at the cor. of Potter's Av. and Greenwich St.  Elmwood contains many handsome residences, several large ice-ponds, Adelaide Grove, and Roger Williams Park.

    EMPLOYMENT SOCIETY, THE PROVIDENCE, was formed in 1837, chartered in 1850, to furnish employment to indigent needle-women at a fair compensation. Sewing-schools were established by its efforts, and were continued until within a few years.  Orders for all kinds of needlework are taken at the rooms, 238 Westminster St.

    ENGINEERS' ASSOCIATION OF RHODE ISLAND, org. in December, 1879, and incorporated in 1881, was established with a view to protect the interests of competent engineers, and has for its aim 'the better security and protection to life and property in the management and handling of steam boilers and engines'.  The society discountenances strikes in toto.  It has 90 members, membership being limited to stationary and marine engineers; and only persons thoroughly competent in their profession are admitted into the association.  These pay a monthly fee of 50 cts.  The society possesses a well-selected library of mechanical and scientific works, and holds weekly meetings at 41 Westminster St.  Sec'y, Henry D. Cozens, Court House.

    ENGINE MANUFACTURERS.  --  See Harris-Corliss engine works.

    ENLISTMENT OFFICE, U. S. A., 25 N. Main St., enrolls for military service able-bodied men bet. the ages of 21 and 35 years.

    p. 36 - 39.

    EQUITABLE FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE CO. is the second largest joint-stock fire and marine insurance co. in Rhode Island, the largest being the Providence Washington, noticed elsewhere.  Although the Equitable is the youngest, it is one of the most prosperous, of the joint-stock co.'s.  It was org. in 1860, the president being the Hon. Thomas G. Turner, who had been governor of the State the preceeding year.  The stockholders were chiefly the personal friends of the president and the first secretary, Augustus M. Turner.  The original capital was $100,000; and this was increased first in 1864 to $200,000; again in 1872 to $300,000.  In the latter year occurred the great Boston fire, which involved the Equitable in a loss of $305,000, although its assets were only $345,000.  This was a severe test of the strength and integrity of the Co.; but the result was in every way creditable, every loss being unequivocally met and promptly paid in full.  From that time its progress has been almost uninterrupted; its gross assets on Jan. 1, 1882, amounting to $468, 651; while its gross liabilities, excluding its capital, were only $86,549, and its net surplus was $81,511.  The Co. owns its own building, known as the Equitable Building, on the cor. of Custom-House and Weybosset Sts.  It is an attractive and well constructed iron-front structure, wholly occupied by offices on the various floors, all of which are made readily accessible by a Whittier passenger-elevator.  The building, besides being an ornament to the city, and providing commodious and conveniently situated offices for the Co., proves to be also a good investment.  Mr. Turner was president for 15 years, until his death in 1875.  His successor was Frederick W. Arnold, who had previously been the secretary for 14 years, having succeeded Mr. Turner about a year after the Co. was organized.  Mr. Arnold has therefore been connected with the Co. upwards of 21 years.  The sec'y is James E. Tillinghast, who was elected in 1875, after eight years' service in the employ of the Equitable.

    EXCHANGE PLACE, a broad sq. (900 ft. long), extends from Washington Row to Dorrance St.  At the W. end stand the City Hall and Soldiers' Monument.  The Union R. R. Depot fills the N. side.  Opposite are the Butler Exchange, and many wholesale houses.  Engine-Station No. 1 faces the City Hall.  Many military and other reviews are held in this place.

    EXCURSIONS.  --  During the summer season ample opportunities are afforded for visiting the various shore resorts and other attractive localities in and about the city.  Excellent steamers ply at frequent intervals up and down the bay, stopping at all important points.  Several of these are reached by railroads, which issue excursion-tickets.  Enjoyable trips to nearer points of interest in the suburbs may be taken in open horse-carts. Newport and Block Island are within 2 and 4 hours' sail, respectively, from the city.  A ride by rail of a little more than an hour brings one to Narragansett Pier, which is also reached by steamer from Newport.  Mt. Hope, the ancient seat of the famous Indian chief, King Philip, may be visited by the boats of the Fall River Steam-boat Co.  Rocky Point, with its mammoth dining-hall for shore dinners, lofty tower, summer theatre, groves and other attractions, is distant but an hour from the city.  Other noticeable shore resorts are Oakland Beach, Buttonwood, Bullock's Point, Riverside, Silver Spring, Ocean Cottage, and Field's Point, the last mentioned elsewhere.

    EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, City Hall, open from 9 A. M. to 4:30 P. M.  The mayor transacts business from 11 A. M. to 1 P. M.

    EXPRESS CHARGES.
    For the transportation of any article weighing not more than three hundred pounds from one place to another within the city, not exceeding one mile, 30 cts.
    For the transportation of any article weighing as aforesaid, more than one mile, 50 cts.
    For each additional article weighing as aforesaid, 15 cts.
    All distances shall be computed by straight lines on the map of the city; and each owner or driver having charge of such express-wagon shall at all times, when using the same, have a copy of said map in said wagon, which shall be exhibited when demanded.

    EXPRESS COMPANIES.
    Adams, Dorrance St., cor. Broad.
    Earl & Prew, 66 Eddy St.
    Erie and New England, Washington St., cor. Eddy.
    New Express Co., 17 Eddy St.

    FARMER & CO., E. G., successors to Farmer, Livermore, & Co., are the only steel-engravers in Rhode Island, and one of the few firms in this line whose customers extend throughout the United States.  They have been established four years, and have already earned a reputation for executing the highest grades of steel-engraving.  The senior partner, E. G. Farmer, jrn., has been in this same business for 12 years, having been connected at various times with the American and Continental Bank-Note Companies of New York, and with John A. Lowell & Co. of Boston.  The premises of E. G. Farmer & Co. include the third floor of the Rose Building, a fine brick structure with granite trimmings, situated at No. 18 Custom-house St., directly opposite the Custom House.  The equipment of the establishment embraces all the machinery and appliances requisite for executing all varieties of steel-engraving for corporations, societies, firms, and individuals.  Bonds, certificates of stock, stationery, wedding and social invitations, business and personal cards, circulars, etc., comprise part of the regular work constantly doing; while elaborate engraving for programmes, menus, and special occasions, is promptly and exquisitely executed.  Steel-engraving has become recognized as one of the fine arts; and, in order to compete successfully with all firms, E. G. Farmer & Co. constantly employ noted and artistic designers, and experienced and skilled engravers, use the best materials, and put the finest finish on all their work.

    FEDERAL HILL, north-west of Broadway, on the W. side, reaches its highest eminence of about 75 ft. nr. the Federal-st. School.

    FEMALE ACADEMY OF THE SACRED HEART.  --  See Sacred Heart.

    FEMALE CHARITABLE SOCIETY, org. in 1800, applies the income of an invested fund to the relief of needy and deserving women.  Mrs. C. C. Carrington, sec'y.

    FERRY.  --  A ferry has been in operation for many years from James St. (East Side) to Ship St. (West Side).  The toll is 2 cents.  The ferry-boat is simply a large rowboat accommodating some half-dozen persons besides the oarsman.

    FIELD'S POINT, 3 miles from Great Bridge, came into possession of the town in 1825, and in 1868 became a part of Ward IX.  It comprises a farm of 37 acres, occupied by the sentinel for a quarantine-station and by the small-pox hospital.  The latter, a white cottage on a bluff overlooking the water, has received but two patients in the last nine years.  Most of the farm is leased as a shore resort, where shore dinners are served daily during the excursion season.  Reached by the Continental line of steamers. The 'point' is a narrow strip of land, extending almost to the opposite shore, and forming a natural boundary bet. the harbor and the bay.

    p. 39 - 41.

    [Transcribers note: The numbers start with 2 - skipping numbers 11, 20, 22, 30, 33, 40, 44, 50, 55, 59, 60, 66, 69, 70, 77, 78, 79, 80, etc.....  The article says there were about 120 boxes total, the article lists box numbers going up to 421. No reason given for the non-consecutive numbers.]
     

    FIRE-ALARM BOXES.
    2.  On the pole cor. Wayland and Angell Sts.
    3.  On pole cor. Hope and Bowen Sts.
    4.  No. 6 Engine Station
    5.  On pole cor. Governor and William Sts.
    6.  On pole cor. East and Coles Sts.
    7.  No. 15 Engine-Station, Wickenden St.
    8.  On building cor. S. Main and Pike Sts.
    10.  On pole E. River St., nr. S. Angell St.
    12.  No. 2 Engine-Station, S. Main St.
    13.  On pole cor. Condon St., opp. Bowen.
    14.  City Building, Market Sq.
    15.  No. 5 Engine-Station, N. Main St.
    16.  On pole cor. Martin and Charles Sts.
    17.  Cor. Cove and Merrill Sts.
    18.  On pole cor. Camp and Locust Sts.
    21.  On pole Benefit St. opp. Benevolent St.
    23.  On pole cor. Union and Washington Sts.
    24.  No. 7 Engine-Station, Richmond St.
    25.  On building cor. Point and Chestnut Sts.
    26.  On building cor. Potter's Av. and Eddy St.
    27.  On pole junc. Point and Friendship Sts.
    28.  On pole cor. Gilmore and Lester Sts.
    29.  On pole cor. Ship and Dyer Sts.
    31.  One pole cor. Camp and Olney Sts.
    32.  On pole junc. Clifford and Dyer Sts.
    34.  On pole cor. Stewart and Pond Sts.
    35.  No. 8 Engine-Station, Harrison St.
    36.  On pole cor. Westfield and Harrison Sts.
    37.  On pole cor. Willow and Sycamore Sts.
    38.  On building cor. Smith and Jefferson Sts.
    39.  On pole at railroad crossing, Charles St.
    41.  On stable cor. Meeting and Benefit Sts.
    42.  On pole cor. Bassett and Claverick Sts.
    43.  On pole cor. Beacon and Plain Sts.
    45.  On pole cor. Broadway and Knight St.
    46.  On New Market Building, High St.
    47.  On building cor. Jackson and Fountain Sts.
    48.  On pole cor. Martin St. and Douglas Av.
    51.  On pole junc. Sexton and N. Main Sts.
    52.  On W. front Prov. Machine Co.'s building, Eddy St.
    53.  On pole cor. Cranston and Messer Sts.
    54.  On pole cor. Broadway and Tobey St.
    56.  On pole cor. Atwell's Av. and Dean St.
    57.  No. 12 Engine-House, cor. Smith and Orms Sts.
    58.  On pole cor. Atwell's Av. and Manton Av.
    61.  No. 4 Engine-Station, Mill st.
    62.  On pole cor. Prairie Av. and Public St.
    63.  On pole 49 Dahlia St.
    64.  On building cor. Mathewson and Westminster Sts.
    65.  On pole cor. Atwell's Av. and America St.
    67.  On pole cor. Manton Av. and Julian St.
    68.  On pole cor. Jackson Av. and Hamilton St.
    71.  Cor. Sabin and Mathewson Sts.
    72.  On pole, Trinity Sq.
    73.  On pole junc. High St. and Broadway.
    74.  On pole cor. Fountain and Dean Sts.
    75.  On E. front Steam Fire-Engine House, R. I. Locomotive Works.
    76.  No. 14 Engine-Station, Putnam St.
    81.  On pole cor. Prairie Av. and Lockwood St.
    82.  Fourth Police Sta'n, Knight St.
    83.  On pole cor. Francis and Gaspee Sts.
    84.  On pole cor. Chalkstone Av. and Smith St.
    85.  On pole cor. Fruit Hill and Manton Avs.
    86.  On pole opp. Dyerville Manufacturing Co.
    91.  On pole cor. Pitman and Gano Sts.
    92.  On pole cor. Eddy St., and Thurber's Av.
    93.  On pole, W. River St., nr. Tool Co.'s Armory.
    121. Cor. Harkness Court and Weybosset St.
    123. On pole junc. Cranston and Winter Sts.
    124. On pole cor. Broad and Plenty Sts.
    125. Butler Hospital
    126. On pole cor. Broad and Baker Sts.
    128. On pole cor. Waterman and Ives Sts.
    131. On pole cor. Benefit and Halsey Sts.
    132. Junc. of Bishop and Willard Sts.
    134. On pole cor. Branch Av. and Charles St.
    135. On pole cor. Admiral and Hawkins Sts.
    136. On pole cor. Elmhurst and Eaton Sts.
    141. On W. front Central Station, Canal St.
    142. Cor. Exchange Place and McNeal Lane
    143. On pole cor. Dudley and W. Clifford Sts.
    145. Atlantic Mills (private).
    151. On pole cor. of Whelden St. and Dowling Place.
    152. On pole cor. Smithfield Ave. and Cemetery St.
    153. On pole cor. Common and Davis Sts.
    154. Oriental Mills (private).
    161. On pole junc. Smith and Eaton Sts.
    162. On pole cor. Chalkstone and River Avs.
    163. Fletcher Manufactr'g Co. (private).
    164. Silver-Spring Bleachery (private).
    171. On pole City Yard.
    172. On pole Calais St., nr. Vitriol Works.
    213. On pole cor. Reservoir Av. and Crescent St.
    214. On pole junc. Elmwood and Reservoir Avs.
    215. On building cor. Greenwich and Public Sts.
    216. On pole cor. Thurber and Prairie Avs.
    217. On pole cor. Broad and Laura Sts.
    224. On pole cor. Academy Av. and Beaufort St.
    227. On pole cor. Somerset and Pine Sts.
    231. Gorham Manufactur'g Co. (private).
    232. Cor. Westminster and Eddy Sts.
    235. On pole cor. John and Thayer Sts.
    236. On Engine-House, cor. Burnside and Oxford Sts.
    241. Riverside Mills (private).
    242. Cor. Page and Pine Sts.
    243. Nicholson File Works (private).
    261.  Prov. Gas Co. (private).
    272. On building cor. Broad and Pearl Sts.
    274. On pole cor. Branch Av. and Cottage Row.
    312. On building cor. S. Water and Crawford Sts.
    313. On pole cor. Harkness and High Sts.
    314. On pole cor. Ring and Courtland Sts.
    315. Wanskuck Mills (private).
    321. On Engine-House, Pallas St.
    361. Elmwood Manufacturing Co. (private).
    371. Taft & Weeden's Mill, Olneyville (private).
    412. American Screw Co., Stevens St. (private).
    421. Rear of 284 1-2 Broad St. (private).

    FIRE-ALARM TELEGRAPH, The.  --  The system in use is what is known as 'Gamewell's Automatic'.  It was introduced in December, 1870, at which time 50 boxes were placed in different parts of the city, communicating electrically with the various alarm bells and gongs.  The number of boxes has increased from year to year, until now there are about 120.  The general directions for holders of keys (who invariably reside in the vicinity of the box) are as follows: --

    1. Go to the nearest box, open the door, pull the hook down as far as you can, (firmly, without jerking), and then let it slide back; close the door, and remove the key.
    2.  If, upon going to a box to give an alarm, you hear the small bell inside ringing (which is an indication that an alarm is being sent over the wires) in all such cases count the signals being sounded, and be certain whether it is for the same fire or not; if not for the same fire, wait until the signals have entirely ceased before pulling the box.

    Key-holders are cautioned: --
    1.  To give no alarm until the fire is certain.
    2.  To give no alarm for fire seen at a distance.
    3.  To be sure, after giving an alarm, that the door is securely closed before the box is left.
    Three strokes sounded by the alarm-bells indicate the fire is out, and the department dismissed.  One stroke is sounded by the alarm-bells at 12 M., and at 8.30 P. M.  See heading Time.

    p. 41 - 44.

    FIRE-DEPARTMENT, THE, is as efficient and well equipped as any in the country.  Since its organization as a paid department in 1854, there has been but one conflagration of any size in the city (in 1877, loss $450,000). It numbers 152 men (74 permanent, 78 'call-men') under the control of the chief engineer, and four assistant engineers.  It consists of 15 hose-carts, 4 hook-and-ladder trucks, beside 8 steam fire-engines rarely used, as the force and supply of the water at the 1,161 hydrants, distributed throughout the city, are sufficient to subdue any ordinary fire.  A valuable auxiliary is the Protective Department, maintained by the insurance-companies, to lessen the damage from water as well as fire.  A fire-marshal, an office created in 1881, is empowered to examine into the causes of all fires in which valuable property has been destroyed or damaged.  In 1881 there were 184 alarms, with losses aggregating only $74,000, and with insurance of about $260,000.  For financial year 1882-83, $100,000 have been appropriated, or $5,000 more than in 1881-82.

    FIREMEN'S ASSOCIATION.  --  See Providence Association of Firemen.

    FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, in a lot 1 1-6 acres in extent, N. Main, cor. Waterman St., is of wood, and was erected in 1775.  Its handsome spire is 196 ft. high.  The society, founded in 1638-39, chartered in 1774, claims to be the oldest Baptist organization in America.  The organ, built by Hook & Hastings in 1833, was the gift of Hon. Nicholas Brown, a benefactor of Brown University.  The church has been used ever since its completion for holding the commencement exercises of Brown University.

    FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH (Unitarian), The, Benefit, cor. Benevolent St., is one of the most noticable churches in the city, owing to its prominent position and graceful steeple.  A tablet on the front of the church indicates that the present edifice was built in 1816, on the site of a previous one destroyed by fire in 1814.  Within the church the high, old-fashioned mahogony pulpit still remains, on each side of which are marble tablets erected to the memory of the Rev. Dr. Hitchcock and the Rev. Dr. Hall, former pastors of this society.  A handsome granite chapel stands in the rear of the church.  It contains a Sunday-school room, parlors, and other rooms for the use of the society.

    FIRST ROMAN-CATHOLIC PRIEST regularly settled in this city was Robert D. Woodley, who was sent here in 1827 by Benedict Fenwick, the Catholic Bishop of New England.  He conducted the services in Mechanics' Hall for about 3 years, and was then succeeded by John Corry.

    FIRST SETTLERS of Providence, besides Roger Williams, were, Wm. Harris, John Smith, Joshua Verrin, Thos. Angell, and Francis Wickes.

    FIRST STEAMBOAT that ever sailed on Providence River was an invention of Elisha Ormsbee of Providence in 1792.  After a few trials it was abandoned.

    FIRST UNIVERSALIST CHURCH, erected in 1872, at the cor. of Green and Washington Sts., is a fine brick building, with stone trimmings, showing excellent taste in the interior arrangement, and lighted by large, finely stained windows.  Two meeting-houses belonging to this society have been erected on Westminster, cor. Union St.; the first was destroyed by fire in 1825; the second was sold in1870, and its site is occupied by the 'Boston Store'.

    FLETCHER'S WORSTED MILLS.  --  See Providence Worsted Mills.

    FLORENCE is a name familiar to Providence people by reason of the extensive advertising and general popularity of the Florence brands of knitting, etching, and filling silks made by the Nonotuck Silk Co., whose mills are in the villages of Florence and Leeds, in the town of Northampton, Mass.  These silks are sold by leading dealers everwhere, and are recognized by the trade as equal to any silks made anywhere in the world.  The New England agent is Geo. D. Atkins, 18 Summer St., Boston.

    FORESTERS, ANCIENT ORDER OF, is an org'n having weekly sick benefits, and an insurance feature; $1,000 being paid to the family of a deceased member, and $5 a week during sickness.  There is one 'court' in Providence, comprising 60 members, sec'y Jas. Abraham, 53 Bay St.; and one 'court' in Olneyville, org'd in 1879.

    FORT INDEPENDENCE, an earthwork on 'Robin Hill', Field's Point, the remains of which are in fair preservation.  It was thrown up for a protection to the harbor during the second war with England.

    FOUNTAINS.  --  See Abbott-Park Fountain, Drinking-Fountains, Prospect-Terrace Fountain.

    FOX POINT, on the east side, juts out about 500 feet between the harbor and the river.  The wharves of the New-York steamers are located on this point.

    FRANKLIN LYCEUM, 62 Westminster St., was formed in 1843 as a debating and literary society, and adopted its present name in the following year.  In 1848 the Westminster Lyceum, a newly formed society, merged its separate title and existence in  the Franklin Lyceum.  Nov. 19, 1858, formal possession was taken of the rooms now occupied.  These comprise a reading-room and a library of about 7,600 vols., and a hall where the Monday-evening debates are held.  For nearly forty years the Lyceum has sustained a public course of lectures and other entertainments during the winter.  It was unsuccessful in its lecture-course last season, and, to avoid heavy loss, gave it up after one or two entertainments.  A debt which had encumbered the society was lifted a year or two ago by Frederic A. Gower, formerly the gen. agent of the Bell Telephone Co.  For several years past the library has not received many additions, but just now special efforts are being made to secure a decided increase in the number of books. The Lyceum has served a most useful purpose in fitting young men for public life, its discipline in parliamentary practice alone being of sufficient value to enlist many young men in its membership.  It is a well-known fact, that most of Rhode Island's prominent men in the past half-century are included in its list of members.  Membership 500.

    FRANKLIN SOCIETY, THE PROVIDENCE, holds public meetings every alternate Tuesday at its rooms, 54 N. Main St.  It was incorporated in 1823.  It aims to cultivate and disseminate scientific knowledge by means of lectures and discussions.  It has a cabinet of natural history, mineralogical and geological specimens, and a small valuable scientific library.  C. M. Salisbury, sec'y.

    FRANKLIN SQUARE, Atwell's Ave., cor. Bradford St., is a diminutive piece of ground, conveyed to the town in 1808, by Amos M. Atwell and others, 'for some public purpose or purposes'.  It serves as a small breathing space for the denizens of that part of the city.

    FRENCH CAMP.  See Camp Street.

    FRENCH DYE-HOUSE is a name used by many concerns in this country; but the one in New England to which it most legitimately belongs is Lewando's French Dye-House, established forty years ago in Boston by A. Lewando, a native Parisian.  The works of this concern are in Watertown, Mass.  The main office is at 17 Temple Place, Boston; and the Providence branch is at 270 Westminster St., adjoining Music Hall.

    p. 44 - 47.

    FRENCH MEMORIAL, The.  --  This monument, the result of the unremitting exertions of the Rev. Frederic Denison, assisted by liberal-minded citizens, has been erected in the the North Burial Ground, over the graves of the French soldiers who died on Rhode Island soil during the Revolution.  It is of Westerly granite, consisting of a base stone 8 x 4 ft. and a ledger stone 6 x 2 ft and 2 ft. high.  The latter bears on its upper surface a French shield, and on the east side are cut the words: 'Our French Allies in the Revolution;' on the west, 'La Gratitude de Rhode Island.'  The north end panel is inscribed, 'Tribute to the People, Decorated by the French Delegation, Nov. 1, 1881.'  The south end has a Revolutionary cartridge box in relief, with the date 1782.  The monument was dedicated July 4, 1882.  A procession composed of the First Light Infantry Regiment, R. I. M.;  on
    Layfayette Guard of New York; Societe Gardes Lafayette; French Consul General and French Legation; French Colony of Providence, militia, bands, and invited guests, --  marched through the sts. of the city to the North Burial-Ground.  The monument was there unveiled with appropriate ceremonies in the presence of the assembled multitude.  Rev. Frederic Denison delivered an oration; addresses were made by the Hon. T. A. Doyle, Mayor Hayward, M. Le Faivre, the French Consul-General; and Prof. J. E. Guilbert read a poem in the French language.  The introductory prayer and the benediction were offered by Bishop Clark.

    FRENCH VISITORS who attended the Yorktown celebration enjoyed the hospitality of this city Nov. 1, 1881, visited the old French camping grounds, the graves of the French solders in the North Burial-Ground, Brown University, and other points of interest.

    FRIENDS' BOARDING-SCHOOL is one of the noblest and most richly endowed educational institutions in New England. Its 225 pupils come from twenty states, to prepare in a literary and scientific or classical course (or a combination of the two) for mercantile life or for universities and professional schools.  Its founder, Moses Brown, was also a founder of Brown University.   He gave, besides his personal care, nearly $20,000, and about 50 acres of land which are now worth perhaps $50,000.  His son, Obadiah Brown, gave $100,000, and since then benefactors in large and small sums have been numerous in all parts of the country; among them Wm. Almy, Ebenezer Metcalf, $30,000, and a Boston lady who in 1882 gave $30,000. The school has been able by its ample endowment to do noble work.  Its foundation might be dated 1780, when Moses Brown headed a subscription by means of which the Society of Friends in 1784 began a school at Portsmouth, R. I.; but it dates merely from 1819, since which time the school has been almost uninterruptedly conducted at Providence.  The grounds, buildings, and equipment should be seen by every visitor to the city.  The property is cor. Hope and Lloyd Sts., about a mile from the City Hall.  The 50 acres are upon an eminence 182 ft. above tide-water, and overlook the city, the rivers, and Narragansett Bay.  Nearly all the towns in Rhode Island can be seen from the cupola on the main building.  The main building is of brick, 220 ft. long, and contains a dining-hall, girls' schoolroom, public reception-room, parlors and nurseries, recitation-rooms, and dormitories.   An extension of brick, 76 ft. long, contains a boys' schoolroom and dormitories.  'Alumni Hall', a three-story brick structure, 126 ft. long, contains on the first floor a grand public hall, besides rooms for the scientific apparatus and cabinets, the library, and reading-room; and on the upper floors dormitories for girls.  There are also two gymnasiums, -- one for each sex, -- an enclosed place for roller-skating, ponds for bathing and skating, and academic groves of venerable trees for recreation and retreat.  The equipment comprises an abundance of approved astronomical and other scientific-apparatus, laboratories, art-models, a library of 6,000 volumes, six pianos, and other musical instruments, etc. Ventilation, drainage, and other sanatory precautions, are perceptible everywhere.  The school takes only boarding pupils, and thus becomes the home of about 225 boys and girls; and here may well be studied the co-education system.  The institution is owned by the New-England Yearly Meeting of Friends, who choose the 'school committee' of 33 men and women.  The faculty consists of 18 male and female instructors, librarians, etc., eight of whom are college graduates, and all of whom are chosen by reason of superior qualifications.  The principal is Augustine Jones, A.M., who in 1851 graduated from this schoool, and later from Bowdoin College, and afterwards from the Harvard Law School, and who was the partner and educator of Gov. John A. Andrew, the Massachusetts 'War Governor'.  He practised law in Massachusetts for 12 years, and served in the general court for one year, and in 1879 relinquished his practice to accept his present responsible position, and has brought to the institution its greater prosperity.  It is not possible in this limited space to give the details of the workings, terms, etc., of the school, but a descriptive pamphlet can be had free by any applicant.  It must be stated, however, that 25 worthy pupils receive (in scholarships) their entire board, rooms, tuition, washing, etc., free of charge; a fact which in itself indicates the character of the institution.  Although managed by Friends, the school is wholly unsectarian, and one-half the pupils are of other denominations. Brook-st. H. C.

    FRIENDS, THE SOCIETY OF.  --  This denomination*, which in the last half of the 17th century suffered the severest persecution from the Massachusetts and Plymouth colonies, always found an asylum and protection in Rhode Island.  Mary Dyer, who has the distiction of being the only woman who suffered capital punishment in the persectutions of Friends, the world over, was a citizen of Rhode Island, the wife of Wm. Dyer, the first sec'y of Aquidneck.  In the year 1672 George Fox, the founder of the sect, held a meeting in a great barn in Providence, which was thronged with people.  This meeting is believed to have been the cause of the famous challenge sent by Roger Williams to George Fox, but not received, to debate in public 14 propositions from the doctrines of Friends.  The home and freedom which they found induced large numbers to settle here, until they were in numbers second only to the Baptists.  They had sometimes, indeed, a controling influence in the colony, and several of their members were governors; notable among them were Nicholas Easton, Wm. Coddington, John Wanton, and Stephen Hopkins.  Hopkins was expelled from the Society because he would not liberate his only slave, in 1773, but a short time before he signed the Declaration of Independence.  Nathaniel Greene, the second general of the Revolution, was from these non-resistant Friends.  The first manufacture of pure cotton fabrics in this country was undertaken through the capital and influence of Moses Brown, a Friend, by introducing the Arkwright machinery. This Society has now only two places of worship in the city:  (1) cor. N. Main and Meeting Sts., and (2) at the Friends' Boarding-School.  The first-named, a plain and unpretentious wooden structure, has been a place of worship of the Society since about 1727.  An addition was made to the building in 1784-85.  The town was accustomed, for a long time, to hold their meetings in this house, and a school was for many years kept in the upper part of it.  A small Friends' meeting-house was built as early as 1704.  The spirit of the age does not seem to favor the simple ways of Friends of the olden time, and they are decreasing in the old New England communities.  But in the West and in many other parts of the world they are adopting the methods of the world and of other churches, and rapidly increasing in numbers.  --  Augustine Jones.

    *America was first visited by Friends when Mary Fisher and Anne Austin arrived in Boston from Barbadoes, to which island they has gone to preach the gospel the preceding year.--  Henry Chase.

    p. 47 - 49.

    GAS-COMPANY, THE PROVIDENCE, rear of What Cheer Building, Market Sq., was chartered in 1847, and began the distribution of gas in 1849.  Its works on Pike St. (East Side) have been abandoned; and Langley St. (West Side), and the south station at foot of Public St., supply gas to thirteen holders in various sections of the city.  In the past year 300,000,000 sq. ft. of gas were made at the two works, about 40,000,000 of which were supplied to the city street-lights and to the City Hall.

    GAS-HOLDERS, THE, generally called elsewhere 'gasometers' erected by the Providence Gas Co., are covered with substantial brick buildings; the roofs of the last having tinned domes.  Gas-holder No. 10, on Cracy St., is of immense size; its total height from curbing of street to top of spire being 201 ft. 10 in., and its cupola 34 5-6 ft. high.  Diameter of holder, 121 ft. 6 in.  It will be seen that this dome is almost as large as that of St. Peter's Church in Rome, which has a diameter of 139 ft. inside and 148 ft. outside.

    GASPEE, THE, was a cruiser, commanded by Duddington, who insulted and abused the Rhode Island colonists.  In 1772, boats came off from Providence in the night, manned by colonists who burned the hated cruiser, and wounded the offending commander.

    GAZETTE AND COUNTRY JOURNAL, THE PROVIDENCE, was the second newspaper founded in Rhode Island, and the first in Providence.  Its founder was Wm. Goddard; and 'among its first contributors was Gov. Hopkins, who began for it his 'Account of Providence', but called to other subjects by the excitement of the times he never went beyond the first chapter. Enough, however, was published to call out several insulting letters from Massachusetts.'  --  G. W. Greene's History of Rhode Island.

    It was Wm. Goddard who, when Franklin was removed from the office of sup't of the American post-office, conceived the idea of a colonial post-office, and visited all the colonies to secure their co-operation for this purpose.

    GENERAL ASSEMBLY, THE, or State Legislature, holds an annual session, commencing on the last Tuesday in May, at Newport, and an adjournment from the same, usually in January following, at Providence.  It consists of the lieutenant-governor, who is a senator ex-officio, and 36 senators, one from each town in the State, and 72 representatives, apportioned among the various towns as follows:  Providence, 12; Pawtucket, 6; Woonsocket and Newport, 5 each, Lincoln and Warwick, 4 each; Bristol, Burrillville, Cranston, Cumberland, Johnston, and Westerly, 2 each; and the remaining 24 towns, 1 each. The sessions in Providence, to which visitors are admitted, are held at the State House.  The annual State election takes place the first Wednesday in April.  The state government is inaugurated annually at Newport on the last Tuesday in May.

    GENEVA,  a manufacturing village just within the limits of the city, was formerly, before its annexation as a part the of the Tenth Ward, in the town of North Providence.

    GEOLOGY OF THE REGION NEAR PROVIDENCE.  -- The geological structure of the region near Providence is too complicated to be treated in any sufficient way in this volume.  The following points have been selected as those most important to those who desire to get an idea of the physical conditions of the city as far as they are affected by the structure of the rocks in its neighborhood.  The mainland of Rhode Island, lying between the western shore of Narragansett Bay and the Connecticut line, is mainly composed of very ancient rocks belonging to the Laurentian and Lower Cambrian series.  The mainland to the eastward of the Bay, in the townships of Taunton and Little Compton, is underlaid by the same series.  These ancient rocks afford building materials, sienties and limestones, iron and copper ores.  These ores have been the objects of some unprofitable mining.  The iron is found in considerable quantities in the township of Cumberland; it is magnetic oxide, containing large amounts of titanium, which makes it so hard to smelt that it has never been much used.  Copper is found in small quantities in Cumberland, but it is in quantities too small for profitable working. During the Revolutionary war and until after the war of 1812-15, these iron ores were used in providing cannon and shot; since that time they have fallen into disuse.  The limestones of Smithfield have been considerably used for making lime; the only hinderance to their extensive employment is the high price of fuel.  The greater part of the water area of Narragansett Bay and of the surface of the most of its islands, as well as a part of the mainland beneath and near Providence, is occupied by rocks belonging to the coal measures.  This set of rocks lies in a broad trough, which extends from the southern part of Newport to within about 30 miles of Boston, Mass.  This series of rocks is over 7,000 feet thick, and owes its preservation to the fact that the beds were folded into a deep mountain valley or synclinal fold, so that the action of the sea and of glaciers could not wear them completely away.  The deep and extensive inlets of Narragansett Bay are cut out in them, they being much softer and more easily worn away than the older rocks of the mainland.  A number of coals are known to exist in these coal measures, which have been searched for in various mines, the most important of which were on the northern part of Aquidneck Island, at Cranston, and at Valley Falls.  Although the coal is of the same age as the beds of anthracite in Pennsylvania, it differs from them in some important respects. It has been more changed by pressure and heat, so that it is sometimes more like graphite or plumbago than ordinary anthracite; it does not ignite readily, though when fired it makes an intense heat; where it has been mined it is found to be much disturbed in its position, so that mining work is difficult and on the whole unprofitable.  Rhode Island has been profoundly affected by glaciation, which has worn down its hills and strewn its surface with bowlders [sic] brought from the northward.  --  N. S. Shaler.

    GERMANIA LODGE OF HARUGARI.  --  See German Secret Societies.

    GERMAN SECRET SOCIETIES.  --  All those below mentioned meet in Fletcher's Hall, No. 173 Westminster St.

    B'nai B'rith, Independent Order of (Sons of the Covenant), a mutual benefit order of Israelites, has one lodge, Haggai Lodge, No. 32, in Providence. The sick-benefits are $5 a week, and on the death of a member $1,000 is paid to his heirs.  These payments are provided for by death assessments and annual dues.  The society numbers about 70 members.  J. H. Kahn, sec'y.

    Free Sons of Israel, Independent Order of, is a Jewish association, in nearly ever respect identical with the B'nai B'rith.  It is represented in Providence by the Providence Lodge, No. 78, and numbers nearly 80 members. David Frank, sec'y.

    Harugari, German Order of.  --  There are two lodges belonging to this beneficial order in the city.  Cheruska Lodge, No. 315, has a membership of 44, and pays to its sick and disabled members $4 a week; and insuring of death-benefits, ranging from $500 to $3,000, is optional with members. Henry Sessler, sec'y.  Germania Lodge, No. 266, comprises 86 members.  It pays a sick-benefit of $5 a week, and a death-benefit of $500, collected by assessment upon members.  A. H. Wagenseil, sec'y.

    GERMAN TURNERS' SOCIETY has rooms at 29 Exchange Pl., where meetings for practice are held twice a week, business meetings on alternate Thurdsays; membership, 52.  Sec'y, Henry Hezel.

    GOLDEN CROSS, UNITED ORDER OF THE, a temperance organization with an insurance feature, was first instituted in Knoxville, Tenn.  It is represented in Providence by two commanderies, Northern Star, No. 44, and What Cheer, No. 124, holding weekly meetings.  Annual dues and death assessments sustain the organization.  Providence membership, 100.

    GOOD TEMPLARS.  --  See Temperance Organizations.


    Continued

    These documents are made available free to the public for non-commercial purposes by the Rhode Island USGenWeb Project. Transcribed by Beth Hurd, 2001 .
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