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[ Being a County or State Administrator is fun and rewarding. If you have an interest in the history of Oklahoma and the genealogy of it's residents please consider it. If you think "there is no way I can do this" there are many people ready, willing and able to help you. It's not near as difficult as you might think. ]
| After the Osage ceded their claim to the area, in 1828 the Western Cherokees acquired the region by ceding their Arkansas lands to the United States. Beginning in 1831 the federal government began to reacquire part of the land lying in present Ottawa County in order to relocate smaller tribes. The first such treaty between the Seneca living on the Sandusky River in Ohio and the federal government was concluded on February 28, 1831. A few months later the United States made an agreement with another Seneca band and the Shawnee of Ohio. Both of these treaties contained a clause promising a sawmill and blacksmith shop. In 1833 a treaty with Quapaw assigned them 150 sections of land near the Seneca. In 1867 the federal government purchased land from the Seneca/Shawnee and the Quapaw to relocate several tribes then residing in Kansas. These included the Peoria, Kaskaskias, Weas, Piankeshaws, Miami, Ottawa, and Wyandotte. After the Modoc War (1872-73) 153 Moduc were placed on the Quapaw Reservation. |
From 1838 to 1871 the Neosho Agency administered these tribes' affairs, operating from several different locations over time. From 1851 through 1861 it occupied the Crawford Seminary, founded in 1843 near the present site of Peoria by the Methodist Episcopal Church as a school for Quapaw children east of Spring River. In 1848 the school had moved several miles north to a healthier environment, and it closed in 1852. Moved to Fort Scott, Kansas, during the Civil War, the Neosho Agency reopened in 1865 under Special Indian Agent George Mitchell in present Ottawa County and in July 1871 became the Quapaw Agency, serving only the tribes located in northeastern Indian Territory (beginning in 1849 several Indian nations then located in Kansas had been placed under the Neosho Agency, and the official Neosho agent lived there after the Civil War).
In 1869 the Society of Friends (Quakers) established a mission for the Wyandotte. It evolved into a boarding school for Seneca, Wyandotte, and Shawnee children, with classes initiated in 1872. Over the years the school was known by several names, including the Wyandotte Mission, Seneca Indian School, Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandotte Industrial Boarding School, and Seneca Boarding School. In 1870 a school opened for the Ottawa, in 1871 a school for the Peoria was established north of the reservations in Baxter Springs, Kansas, and in 1871 a boarding school for the Quapaw and Modoc was founded. From 1894 until 1927 St. Mary's of the Quapaw, a Catholic facility, served that tribe. By the late 1890s most of the Quapaw Agency's charges had taken allotments.
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