WHY THE UNITED STATES ENTERED THE WORLD WAR
The outbreak of the World War, in August, 1914, came as a terrible shock to the world, especially to the United States. From the beginning of the struggle, the sympathies of the majority of Americans were with the Triple Entente. The atrocities and outrages committed by the Germans together with the violation of Belgium's neutrality and international laws only added to this feeling.
Germany immediately began her terrible submarine warfare upon merchant vessels, which greatly affected American lives and property. She, also, proclaimed on February 4, 1915, a war zone extending around the entire British Isles warning all enemy merchant vessels to keep out of this area. On May 7, 1915, the Lusitania was sunk without warning. Of the 1,153 souls who perished, 114 were American men, women and children. Immediately following this, the liner, Arabic, was torpedoed. Several persons lost their lives, among whom were two American citizens.
These two incidents brought matters to a crisis, and the United States was kept out of war only by Germany's solemn promise to modify her radical policy. But in March, 1916, the passenger steamer, Sussex, was sunk without warning. A few American citizens were either killed or injured. The German government immediately disclaimed all guilt, stating that this conduct was contrary to official orders, which ruse succeeded in quieting the tumult to some extent.
Another cause for trouble was the spreading of German propaganda and attempts at murder and destruction of property not only in the United States, but all over the Americas, by German spies and secret service agents, among whom were the attachés of the German Embassy at Washington and the Austrian ambassador. Among these intrigues was the "Zimmerman Note" which was brought to light by the United States secret service men on March 1, 1917. It disclosed a plot originated by Germany in which Japan and Mexico were to declare war on the United States and as a reward were to receive large slices of our southwestern states. From this disclosure it was easy enough to prove that Germany had been at least partly responsible for our trouble with Mexico in 1916.
On February 1, 1917, Germany threw all caution to the winds and announced that she would adopt the method of unrestricted submarine warfare. After much discussion and deliberation President Wilson appeared before both Houses of Congress on April 2, 1917, and urged that:"Neutrality is no longer feasible or desirable, when the peace of the world is involved, and the freedom of its peoples, and when the menace to that peace and freedom lies in the existence of autocratic governments backed by organized force which is controlled wholly by their will, not the will of their people."Accordingly, April 5, Congress finally declared that a state of war existed between the United States and Germany as indicated in the following resolution:RESOLVED, That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the President be, and he is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial German Government, and to bring the conflict to a successful termination; all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.
THE DRAFT AND DRAFT BOARDS
During the extra session of Congress called by President Wilson in 1917, a bill was passed providing for the drafting of men for the army, marine corps, navy, and other lines of service. The bill became a law on May 18. The call for volunteers immediately followed the declaration of war, was admirably responded to, but even so the number of men was not sufficient for the need. For this reason the Selective Draft Law was passed.
This law provided for the establishing of Local and District or Appeal Boards to take charge of the draft. For this purpose the United States was divided into districts, each state consisting of one or more districts, each state consisting of one or more districts, according to its size. Maryland was divided into three districts of which the Eastern Shore composed the third. The members of the Appeal Board in this district were Judge W. Laird Henry, Chairman; Harry A. Roe, Secretary; Curtis E. Crane, Charles F. Rich, and Dr. J. MacFadden Dick, with headquarters at Denton. These men were appointed by the Governor and were under the control of the Adjutant General of the State, who was under the Adjutant General of the United States.
The district was composed of smaller divisions, each county being one division with a Local Board at the head. The members of the Local Board for Caroline County, were L.B. Towers, Chairman; Dr. H.W.B. Rowe, and Josiah Beck, with headquarters at Denton. In addition to these boards there was an advisory board appointed to give any legal advice needed. The members of this board were:
Harvey L. Cooper, Chairman; T. Alan Goldsborough, Frederick R. Owens.
Under the bill all men between the ages of 21 and 31 were compelled to register at their prospective voting places. The names were then sent to the Local Board of the county and each one numbered. They were then sent to Annapolis and from there to National Headquarters at Washington. Here each number was put in a capsule and then in large containers to be drawn from. Government clerks, blindfolded, drew the numbers and the men were called in the order in which they were drawn. Every man was notified as to which was his number and when to report for examination. By this method of selecting the men, it was done impartially and they were called into service according as their numbers were drawn. Of course, many of them were exempt from service, and this was attended to by the Local Boards of the counties. Questionnaires were sent out to the men, which they were to fill out and return. Many of the men were exempt on account of physical disabilities but many claimed exemption for other reasons. The Local Board decided whether or not a man was to be exempt. Anyone not satisfied with the decision of the board could appeal to the District Board and with these Boards rested the final decision except in special cases where the appeal might be taken to the President.
The Local Boards also had charge of sending the men to Camps. In our county all the men had to come to Denton first. If the Government sent out a call for forty men, about forty-eight or fifty were notified to report at Denton on a certain date. The extra men were sent for as substitutes so that if any of the forty did not appear, there would be someone to send in his place. When they arrived in Denton they reported to the Local Board. This was done in order to be sure they were all there. This always took place the forenoon before they were to leave the next morning. In case of a large number being called there was usually a public meeting at the Court House where addresses were given to the boys by local speakers.
When there were forty-eight or fifty men being sent away a captain was appointed over the whole company, and for every eight men a lieutenant. These were to see that the men arrived safely at the Camps.
The same plan was worked out in other counties of the United States as here, and before the end of the first year half a million soldiers were training in large Camps all over the United States. These Camps, about fifty in number, each a new city, were largely under officers who had been trained earlier in the year in new officers training camps. When the armistice came a year later we had 3,000,000 men under arms, of which more than 2,000,000 were in France.
WAR SESSION OF THE MARYLAND LEGISLATURE OF 1917
On June 12, 1917, Governor Harrington called an extra session of the Legislature of Maryland for the purpose of enacting necessary war measures. At this session there was a bitter fight between a combination in the House of City Democrats and a majority of the Republicans, against the administration, the object of which was to have written into the Million Dollar War Loan bill the names of those who should control the fund, but they were defeated in their purpose. This combination also attempted to insert a repealer of the Wilson Ballot law into the Soldiers Vote Bill, with the result that the bill was killed.
Among the many important laws passed at this session the following are those that are essentially war measures:1. Providing for Annapolis Junction Camp site.The sixth measure named above was the law generally known as the "Work or Fight" bill. It was rigidly enforced throughout the state and in some special sections played an important part, but in our own town and county there were only a few specific cases where the enforcement of the law was necessary, for as a rule our boys and men were either willing to fight or to stick at some worthwhile job.
2. Creating a Maryland Council of Defense.
3. Providing for a $1,000,000 War Loan.
4. Creating a Maryland State Guard.
5. Amending the militia laws.
6. Compelling idlers to work.
7. Authorizing volunteer firemen to act as county guards.
8. Suspending legal proceedings in favor of persons in military service
9. Suspending judgments, etc. against persons unable to pay on account of war to apply only
to soldiers and sailors.
10. Suspending statues of limitations in favor of persons absent on account of war.
11. Permitting absent soldiers and sailors to register for voting.
The President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House at this session were, respectively, Peter J. Campbell of Baltimore City, and David G. McIntosh of Baltimore County. The Legislature adjourned "sine die" on June 27, 1917.
THE COUNCIL OF DEFENSE
In December, 1915, Congress passed the National Defense Act which provided for a regular army of 186,000 officers and men, a federalized National Guard of over 400,000 men, a system of civilian training camps for reserve officers, and the establishment of plants for the production of nitrates and other products used in the manufacture of munitions.
The same Act gave the President authority to create a wonderful organization known as the Council of National Defense. This Council was a powerful combination of officials with experts in science, business and the professions. It included subcommittees on transportation, munitions, engineering, supplies, raw materials, and labor, with numerous sub-committees, including one on women in industry. Under this National Council and working in connection with it were the various State Councils.
The Maryland Council of Defense did much work and a wide variety of work. In the beginning was Maryland's pledge--"RESOLVED: By the General Assembly of Maryland, that the State of Maryland pledges all its resources to the Government of the United States, for the successful prosecution of the war,"which resolution was unanimously adopted by members of the General Assembly.
1. To consider all problems relating to women and their work which might arise during the war."
Therefore the General Assembly passed an act, creating the Maryland Council of Defense, providing that fifty men should constitute said Council, and at the same time it provided legislation for $1,000,000 to be subject to the order of the Council, for its expenditure, with the approval of the Governor. Below each State Council, and in constant touch with it, were county councils of like manner.
The Caroline County Commission appointed by Governor Harrington was H. L Cooper, Chairman; Harry A. Roe, Thos. H. Chambers, Nathaniel Horsey, and John M. Swing.
This Commission had supervision over the following branches of work: Organization, finance, public information, registration, thrift department, educational propaganda, industrial workers, vigilance, liberty loans and war saving stamps, maintenance of existing social agencies.
While the act of the General Assembly creating the Council of Defense provided that it should consist of only men, the Governor appreciating the necessity of securing the full aid of the women in this state, named a like number of women, who organized without legislative act as the "Women's Section of the Maryland Council of Defense."
The purposes of the Council were:1. To consider all problems relating to women and their work which might arise during the war.The Council was to be a clearing house for all organizations and for the work of all individuals throughout the State. The Women's Work of Maryland Council of Defense was the same as the men's except that they took up an additional branch of work, the Social and Welfare Department.
2. To coordinate the work and develop the resources of the Women of Maryland in order to
secure the highest efficiency for War Emergency Work.
3. To furnish a direct and speedy channel between the different departments of the Federal
and State Governments and the Women of Maryland.
4. To ascertain and report the patriotic work that was done by women and women's
The Caroline County Commission was appointed by Governor Harrington May 3, 1917, and the work of the organization was begun at once. This commission consisted of Mrs. J. Kemp Stevens, chairman; Mrs. Fred P. Roe, Mrs. Thomas R. Green, Mrs. John W. Stowell,
Mrs. J. W. Payne.
There was also appointed by the Governor a Division composed of colored men and a Division composed of colored women, all of whom according to their opportunities did splendid work.
The entire organization did exceedingly useful work in promoting unity, arousing interest, and suppressing possible treason within the State.
LIBERTY LOANS AND WAR-SAVING CERTIFICATES
In order to finance the war, the Federal Treasury Department issued United States Bonds in denominations of $50, $100, $500, and $1,000, bearing 4% interest. This was the First Liberty Loan, and was inaugurated in June, 1917. Harvey L. Cooper of Denton was appointed chairman of the committee to sell bonds in the county. All banks became agencies, and each district sent out a committee of local agents. These bonds were exempt from all taxes except inheritance and the normal federal income taxes. With the assistance of the Women's Preparedness and Survey Commission of Caroline County a meeting was held at the Court House June 12, 1917, at which bonds to the amount of over $114,000 were sold.
As the war progressed and it became necessary to arouse the people to a conception of the amount of money needed to carry oil the war, each state, county, and district was apportioned its share of the loan to be made. This apportionment was based on the banking resources of the community, usually $7.50 per capita unless the banking resources amounted to more than that amount. Whenever any state, county, or district had subscribed its allotment, it was entitled to display its Honor Flag, a red-bordered banner with a number of blue stripes across its white field corresponding to the serial number of the loan for which it was displayed; thus a community subscribing its quota to the Third Liberty Loan floated a banner bearing three stripes. It was a matter of pride and honor among Carolinians to keep their respective Honor Flags flying regardless of the increasing amounts of the loans asked.
All professional people, all county officials, and all organizations were appealed to to assist in awakening the public conscience in the matter of buying bonds. Ministers spoke at local patriotic meetings everywhere, and held special services in the churches, thus linking the cause of liberty and democracy with that of religion. Salesmen traveling in automobiles were instrumental in posting bills and distributing literature. Public spirited men and women everywhere were appointed to assist in a house-to-house canvas for the sale of bonds.
In all there were five of these loans, the total amount of money thus raised in the county being $1,905,650. Each time a campaign of speaking, exhibiting war souvenirs, martial music, etc. preceded or accompanied the drive for funds. The Second Liberty Loan drive was the occasion for a big mass meetiug at Denton in October, 1917. A crowd of 3,000 or more assembled on the Court House square listening to addresses by Albert G. Towers, Judge Harry S. Covington, and Samuel S. Watts. A Scotch Band in national costume and performing on bagpipes furnished a picturesque and unusual element to the occasion, while the songs of the Naval Reserve Quartet gave the touch and atmosphere of soldier life. County subscriptions to this fund amounted to over $300,000.
The Third Loan, for which the county allotment was $305,200, was launched April 6, l918, and closed May 4, 1918. These bonds bore 4 1/4 % interest and became due Sept.15, 1928. Subscriptions were payable outright or in four installments. American and Canadian soldiers (the latter of whom were wounded men returned from the front) figured in this campaign for funds.
Caroline's subscription was $353,350.
The Fourth Loan was opened Sept. 28, 1918. The ban on using gasoline for Sunday automobile rides was lifted in order to encourage the big meeting at the county seat on "Heroes Day," Sunday, Sept. 29. James W. Chapman, Clarence Perkins, Simon J. Block, and Rev. C. T. Wyatt were speakers on this occasion. During the campaign the government loaned patriotic films for display in motion picture parlors. These shows were open to all who displayed the button showing that they had bought bonds of the Fourth Liberty Loan. Later in the campaign they were open to all. $612,900 were raised for this loan.
The Fifth, or Victory Loan, as it was called, was made in April, 1919, after the armistice had been signed. A special inducement to buy these bonds was offered in allowing 4 3/4 % interest. A rousing meeting was planned for this final campaign. Between 5,000 and 8,000 people from the county attended the meeting at the county seat April 27, 1919. "Jerry's Coffin" and "Verenne Taxi," two war tanks from overseas, divided interest with an airplane from Washington, the first to come to land in Denton. A thirty-piece band of the Seventeenth Infantry, as well as the presence of several returned soldiers from Caroline County stirred the patriotism of the crowd assisting in a glorious over-the-top subscription of $525,300.
Another means of raising money by government loans was the sale of Thrift Stamps and War-Savings Stamps. This sale was directed by the Treasury Department under authority of the same act of Congress which floated the Second Liberty Loan. It was designed to encourage thrift at a much needed time for that virtue, and to enable those to participate in war loans whose means would not permit them to buy even the smallest bond--$50. Thrift Stamps cost twenty-five cents, could be purchased at any time and, when sixteen had been collected, could be exchanged for War Savings Stamps which bore interest compounded semi-annually at 4% and were "absolutely and unconditionally free from all national, state and local taxes."
Every War-Saving Stamp could be registered at any post office, thus insuring the owner against lost. Any purchaser might sell his Stamps back to the Government through any post office on 10 days written notice. The conditions put and kept W.S.S. within the reach of all who could have anything at all, and made them popular investments. The amount of this loan ($2,000,000,000 for the United States) was reserved for those of small means by limiting the amount purchasable at one time to $100 and by one person to $1,000.
The campaign began on Jan. 1, 1918, and closed Dec. 31. of the same year, by which time about $400,000 had been collected through W.S.S. sales. Harry W. Davis of Federalsburg was chairman for the county; post offices, banks, stores, and public school teachers were authorized agents or agencies. As far as possible, Thrift Stamps and War Saving Stamps were sold through the schools and school children, in order to give training in the formation of thrift habits, and to give the citizens of tomorrow a chance to participate in the duty and the privilege of maintaining liberty as a world standard.
UNITED WAR WORK
Throughout the war various benevolent and philanthropic organizations made numerous "drives" for funds with which to carry on their efforts to bring something of the atmosphere of home to the boys in camp, in the field, and in the trenches. Acting on the suggestion of President Wilson, seven prominent organizations, the Young Men's Christian Association, the Young Women's Christian Association, the Knights of Columbus, the Jewish Welfare Board, the War Community Service, the American Library Commission, and the Salvation Army instituted a joint drive in the proceeds of which each organization shared in proportion to its membership. Mr. T. Alan Goldsborough was made chairman of the Caroline County committee to raise its quota of $12,900 of the fund for the United War Workers, as they were jointly called. Sub-chairmen were appointed for each district, and the work carried on in the same manner as in previous campaigns. $15,434.26 was the actual amount raised.
As an auxiliary to the United War Workers, band of Victory Boys and Victory Girls were organized in all parts of the county, pledging themselves not only to give a stated amount to the fund, but to earn it by their own efforts. Hundreds of children were busy several months in earning money with which to meet their obligations. Interesting, indeed, were the many ways in which children made themselves of use to their parents and other employers.
Approximately 600 boys and 700 girls signed pledges varying amounts from one to five dollars. All of these Victory Boys and Victory Girls were under twenty years of age, and most of them were enrolled in the public schools. The results were most gratifying, and, in fact, little short of remarkable, the total amount pledged being over four thousand dollars, much above the county's school quota.
Following is a list of schools and their respective pledges:
It was very pleasing indeed to the people generally to know that nearly $4,000 of the amount pledged alone was actually contributed by the boys and girls and forwarded to the proper source to aid in the successful termination of the war.
REPORT OF CAROLINE COUNTY MARYLAND CHAPTER OF RED CROSS
Prior to the spring of 1917, when we entered the World War, there had been no Red Cross organization of any kind in Caroline County, Maryland. There were a few Red Cross members, possibly six, scattered throughout the county, recruited by chapters in the neighboring cities. One Sunday School class of girls in Goldsboro had begun to make slings, bed socks, etc., under the direction of their teacher, who was a member of one of the Delaware organizations.
Early in May, the Women's Section, Council of Defense for Caroline County, met in Denton to organize and to apportion the work to be undertaken by the Council to the various members. To Mrs. J. W. Stowell of Federalsburg, was assigned the department of Social and Welfare work and the Medical and Nursing department. As these departments were covered by Red Cross work almost entirely it seemed best to organize that work throughout the county. Mrs. Stowell immediately got in communication with the Chairmen of the Baltimore Chapter and it was arranged to organize circles in the various towns, these circles to belong to the Baltimore Chapter. By the end of June the following circles were established with the sub-chairmen named:Denton - Mrs. J. Kemp StevensThe total membership was about three hundred, all working hard to earn money to buy material for the supplies that were required of them. In June, Mrs. Stowell had a letter from Red Cross Headquarters in Washington, saying that the Baltimore Chapter had no right to organize the counties and urged her to organize an independent chapter in Caroline County. Early in July a meeting was called at the Court House in Denton for this purpose, and after much effort and many communications with Headquarters, the Caroline County Chapter Red Cross was officially recognized. The officers were:
Federalsburg - Mrs. Harry W. Davis
Ridgely - Mrs. John Swing
Greensboro - Mrs. Grace Quigg
Preston-Mrs. Frank Lednum
Hillsboro - Mrs. G. Lawrence Wilson
Goldsboro - Mrs. J. Spencer Lapham
Marydel - Mrs. Harry S. DaileyMrs. J. W. Stowell, ChairmanThe Chapter, which started with three hundred members, had grown to five hundred and forty-four by Christmas 1917. During the Christmas Drive, by intensive effort of every sort in the way of solicitation, visiting country homes, calling on the town people, booths in banks, stores and post offices, and by public meetings, the membership was raised to two thousand and fifty-five. At the Christmas Drive in 1918 the total adult membership was counted as twenty-four hundred and eighteen.
Mrs. J. Kemp Stevens, Vice-Chairman
Miss Mary Hobbs, Secretary
Dr. M. Bates Stephens, Treasurer
The Junior Red Cross work in the county began in earnest in March 1918. At the end of that school year the Chapter School Committee reported a membership of three thousand divided into forty-six auxiliaries. Several schools adopted refugees with the money collected for membership dues, two contributed toward a cot equipment, others wished to buy material and make layettes. A few blankets were knitted-each child making one square. The total amount placed in the treasury by the children was $571.47. On May 18, 1918, over fifteen hundred children marched in a Junior Red Cross Auxiliary Parade, held at Denton. The parade ended at the Athletic field where patriotic exercises were given.
During the summer of 1917, while the membership of the Red Cross in Caroline County was still small, $3784.77 was raised and one thousand dollars was spent in the equipment of a base hospital. By the time the second War Fund Drive had been appropriated the membership had grown until the quota of the county was fixed at five thousand dollars. This amount was more than half subscribed in the Denton churches on Sunday morning, following the pastor's appeal for the cause. At the end of the week a big mass meeting was held on the Court House Square. Speeches were made by Chairman Harry A. Roe, Dr. M. Bates Stephens, State Superintendent of Education, Mr. R. A. Boyd of the Federal Trade Commission, and Corporal Chas. W. Bowlby, a Canadian who was on the battlefield of France for two years. The total subscription amounted to twelve thousand dollars. There was always a plan for raising money for Red Cross and the execution proved in most cases successful. The ministers co-operated heartily, both by speaking at the regular church meetings and by their words at public gatherings.
The colored women of the county felt their sons were going to war and they desired to help the Red Cross. In Ridgely a circle was organized and joined the Chapter. In Preston a group of colored women sewed under the direction of Mrs. Douglas, the sub-chairman of Preston. At Denton, the women formed a club and sewed on caps or aprons which they sold to their friends and donated the money to the Red Cross; they also made comfort kits for their soldiers and filled them. On the whole the colored population responded very well to the call for members, especially when solicited by their own people. They showed their eagerness to aid in many ways, some of the women would offer to launder the linen when hemmed by the white women, saying that they wanted to do something.
CHART SHOWN IN COUNTY AGRICULTURAL EXHIBIT ON NOVEMBER 1, 1918
CAROLINE COUNTY RED CROSS
In regard to the work done b the county directly for boys in service, there is much to be said. the first Christmas (1917) one hundred and eighty-eight Christmas packages were sent to boys in camp. One town sent to every man in service from their district a fruit cake costing ninety-five cents. Another town made a specialty of collecting Victrola records for camp. Smileage books sold very well too, in the county. The second year, the Red Cross gave all possible publicity to t he Christmas cartoon distribution for families who had men in the Expeditionary Force. The custom was established when the first men left Caroline, of furnishing each man with a Comfort Kit. The kit came from his home town and seemed especially appreciated on that account.
The Home Service Section is now the most active of all branches in our Chapter. Since the first of July, 1918, when Mrs. J. Spencer Lapham, the present secretary, was appointed, about two hundred cases were handled. Members of the Volunteer Motor Service Corps have aided in reaching outlying country districts. Emergency calls receive immediate answers. The work has been varied and interesting. Wives and mothers whose allotments do not come regularly report to the Secretary and inquiries are begun at once. Mrs. Lapham has had forty-three of these cases, and all but five have been settled satisfactorily. Three of these families have had financial aid. She also helped relatives get information concerning those reported missing in action or wounded or ill. During the fall of 1918 there were many cases of influenza in soldier's families. In several instances the Home Service Section obtained a few days' leave of absence for soldiers who were still in camp, to return to see relatives who were dangerously ill. In other cases Mrs. Lapham corresponded with the man in service, keeping him in touch with his family until danger was over. Letters have been written to men in service for the wives and parents who were not able to do their own correspondence. The members of this department have helped men in service to get affidavits necessary to release them in cases where there was illness or business difficulties.
The returned soldier comes to the Home Service Section for information concerning compensation, insurance, the sixty dollar bonus and other similar things. Occasionally a day passes when the Secretary does not write a letter, but generally from three to fifteen are written daily. To prove some claims it was necessary to get certified copies of birth certificates, marriage records, and even divorce decrees.
Both during and after the war the Belgian Relief has not been forgotten. Garments were donated for the refugees and new material was made, by the women of the county, into serviceable underwear and outer garments for Belgian children according to directions from Headquarters. The Red Cross will never again show only a handful of members in Caroline County. The altruistic spirit introduced by and through its work is of untold benefit to our people.
ANNIE CARTER SINCLAIR, Sec't.
Simultaneous with the mobilizing, arming, and equipping of troops for the trenches, another army was being mustered, organized, and drilled to serve in the less spectacular, but not less necessary, war against waste, and for the increased production of life essentials. On April 10 and 11, four days after the declaration of war, Secretary Houston met a delegation of Agricultural Commissioners in St. Louis to discuss the food and fuel situation. During the summer months the general plan of campaign there formulated was worked out in detail so that when the passage of the Food-Control Act of Aug. 10, 1917, clothed the President with unlimited power to control the food resources of the nation, little time was lost in putting those plans into effect.
In general the objects of the Administration were: (1) To decrease the home consumption of wheat, meat, and sugar, (2) to keep up the shipment of supplies to our army and our allies, (3) to prevent profiteering, and (4) to increase production. To do this necessitated the cooperation of each county and state in the Union. Although almost all regulations in effect in the counties were made by the Federal or the State Administration, and although every possible use was made of already existing organizations and officers, it was yet necessary for each county to have an Administrator to issue sugar permits, to meet local merchants for the purpose of fixing prices within regulation limits, to keep millers informed as to prices, and to see that government demands were met. Mr. T. H. Chambers of Federalsburg was appointed Administrator for Caroline County in June, 1918.
By this time many government regulations had already gone into effect. In November, 1917, cards had been distributed to and signed by housewives who thus pledged themselves to one meatless and one wheat less meal each day, one meatless and one wheat less day each week, no pork on Saturdays, and a general saving of sugar and fats. These abstainances were voluntary; others were mandatory. Only one-half pound of sugar for each individual in the family could be purchased weekly. Every grocer was required to keep a record of date, amount, name of purchaser, and number in purchaser's family. These records were inspected by the Administrator. For every pound of wheat flour purchased an equal amount of some substitute such as rice flour, corn meal, oatmeal, etc., must be bought. No individual in town or city could buy more than twenty-five pounds of wheat flour at one time. Country residents were allowed fifty pounds. Bakeries, also, were under regulations. A maximum quantity of sugar and shortening was fixed, uniform loaf weights were adopted, and the flour used had to consist of one-fifth wheat substitute. Such bread received the patriotic name of "Victory Bread." A "Fair Price" list agreed upon at a meeting of merchants of the county and Administrator Chambers in July, 1917, gave these figures:
Sugar, per lb. $.10 Flour (wheat), per lb. .07 Flour (corn meal), per lb. .06 Flour (rye), per lb. .07 Flour (barley), per lb. .08 Rice, per lb. .10--.15 Oats (loose), per lb. .08 Corn syrup (2 ½ lb. cans) .25 Cheese, per lb. .30--.35 Butter, per lb. .55--.60 Beef (Rib Roast), per lb. .28--.40 Beef (Sirloin Steak), per lb. .30--.45 Lard (Kettle rendered), per lb. .32--.35 Smoked Ham, per lb. .35--.45 Bacon, per lb. .45--.50
Many a half-forgotten recipe for making cornbreads, cottage cheese, etc., was revived; the old-time practice of drying fruits and vegetables came into vogue; and many perishable vegetables were conserved by modern methods of canning. Mrs. Edith Norman, Home Demonstration Agent for the county, was instrumental in disseminating such knowledge. One hundred twelve women were enrolled in Women's Home Economics Clubs which met regularly during the summer of 1918 for demonstration in canning and drying. Although the amount of such work done was limited by a fruit and vegetable shortage due to drought, yet the value of produce thus preserved was approximately $2,000. Club work, comprising poultry and tomato raising as well as canning fruits and vegetables, was carried on among the girls also. One hundred eighty-four girls were enrolled; the value of the canned goods amounted to $359.10. Under E. A. Anderson, County Farm Demonstration Agent, boy's clubs were organized, with the result that during the two years of the war 1,680 bushels of corn, 384 bushels of potatoes, and 19 pigs were added to the food production of the county.
Conservation of fuel was another problem of the war. Chiefly on account of lack of transportation facilities from mines to consumer, but also because of strikes among the miners, to obtain coal became both difficult and expensive. Hence conservation and use of substitutes became necessary as in the food situation. A campaign of volunteer "save a shovelful a day" was inaugurated by the government. Mr. H. C. Hobbs of Denton was appointed Fuel Administrator to see that coal was properly distributed, to procure it for dealers, and to instruct them in their methods of dealing. The maximum price paid for coal in the county during the war was $11.77. Partly in order to relieve the coal famine in the eastern states, but more to decrease shipment to already congested ports the Federal Fuel Administration ordered practically all factories east of the Mississippi river, unless engaged in the manufacture of war material, to shut down for the eight day period from
Jan.17 to 29, 1918. Moreover on Monday for ten successive weeks, stores, shops, factories, and public buildings except schools, hotels, and lighting plants were required to close. There were no exceptions to this order in Caroline County. Mondays were "heatless holidays."
For a similar reason, unnecessary travel by automobile in states east of the Mississippi was discouraged during the summer months. Another measure designed to save fuel and lights as well as to promote gardening was the Daylight-Saving Law which became effective May 1, 1918. It provided that clocks be set ahead one hour on that date, and set back again in October. The plan was popular in towns, where a man might have considerable time for gardening after business hours, but the opposition by farmers, generally, was so strong that after two years' trial Congress repealed the law. Further to complicate the heating problem an unusually low temperature prevailed throughout the winter of 1917-1918. Many bushels of potatoes and apples that had been buried in pits of ordinary depth froze. So great was the consumption of coal and so inadequate the available supply that schools were in some cases forced to close for want of it.
The fall of 1918 is memorable as the time of the Spanish Influenza epidemic. The disease probably crept into America through the medium of the army, since practically all of Europe was devastated by it prior to its appearance here. The first case reported in Caroline County was from Preston, Oct. 5. The whole county was quickly involved; schools, churches, moving picture theaters, and other meeting places were closed by state and county boards of health, and remained closed for a period of five weeks. Many places of business closed because of the illness of managers and operators. Whole families were stricken down at once. A total of 1,140 cases was reported; 134 deaths resulting therefrom. Although there were cases of the disease during the entire winter, the epidemic was practically over by November.
Meanwhile, from the battle line of Europe there were coming indications that a cessation of hostilities must be near. Eager anticipation, therefore, speedily gave way to wild demonstration when on the morning of Nov. 11, 1918, word was received that an armistice had been agreed upon. Business was suspended, prayers of thanksgiving were offered in the churches, parades were formed, whistles shrieked, bells jingled, flags fluttered. Every house showed its bunting; every citizen expressed in his own way joy, relief, and gratitude at the indications of peace.
On August 15, 1919, calamity again visited the county this time in the form of a flood. Heavy rains for a week so saturated the soil and filled the streams that the downpour of the memorable Wednesday of Aug. 15, broke dams, overflowed river banks, swept away bridges, flooded streets, cellars and first floors of dwellings, and drowned small animals such as pigs and chickens. Electric lines were broken, street lights were out, and railroad traffic was suspended. Crops were either destroyed or badly damaged. Joyce Mill, Bloomery, and Pennypacker Bridges were completely wrecked, as was likewise a bridge on the state road near Federalsburg. Falconer Bridge stood intact with a thirty foot gulley cutting the road each side of it. The total damage to roads and bridges was estimated at $60,000.
LIST OF INDUCTED MEN FURNISHED BY THE LOCAL BOARD
OF CAROLINE COUNTY TO THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL
Names starred are those of men who died in service either in camp or on the field. No titles of rank are given because of the impossibility of securing all. For a similar reason a few names occur both in this list and in the Roster of Enlisted Men when the exact case could not be ascertained.
(Note: All names are listed in the order they appear in the book. A.D.)
Adams, Leonard W. (Col.) Denton Lane, Clarence F. Ridgely Aldridge, James N. (Col.) Preston Latshaw, Vernie W. Ridgely Alexander, Oscar Marydel Layton, Edward Preston Allen, Raymond (Col.) Ridgely Legree, John (Col.) Denton Anderson, Alonzo (Col.) Denton Lewis, Harvey Edw. (Col.) Denton Andrew, Harold Denton Lewis, James Henry (Col.) Ridgely Anthony, Calvin Denton Lewis, Arthur J. Hickman, Del. Anthony, Howard Denton Lowe, William G. Federalsburg Austin, Courtland Ridgely Lynch, William E. Ridgely Bascak, John Hobbs Magers, George W. Preston Baker, Wilbert John Denton Magee, Edgar (Col.) Federalsburg Barcus, Luther Denton Meluney, Wm. Clement Hickman, Del. Baynard, Norman W. (Col.) Hobbs Marvel, William D. Ridgely Beel, Nobel Henderson Matthews, Robert L. (Col.) Goldsboro Beer, Wilbur Peter Denton Matthews, Oscar (Col.) Greensboro Benson, Arthur D. Greensboro Merriken, Calvert C. Federalsburg Benson, George W. Denton Meredith, Leslie L. Wilmington, Del. Betton, William D. Federalsburg Messer, Alton R. Federalsburg Beulah, Thomas Denton Milby, Charles R. Goldsboro Beulah, Walter (Col.) Federalsburg Miley, James L. Preston Blackburn, John Henry Ridgely Milleman, John C. Preston Blades, Ralph Thos. Bethlehem Mills, Marion Earl Federalsburg Blanche, Raymond B. Ridgely Mitchell, Harry Leon Federalsburg Blades, Harlan R. Denton Mitchell, George H. Greensboro Blosser, Orville A. Denton Moore, Harry T. Ridgely Breeding, Thomas Mark Federalsburg Moore, Wondell H. Preston Brewington, Solomon H. (Col.) Federalsburg Morgan, Edgar Denton Bridegroom, Alonza L. Preston Murphy, Harry J. Hobbs Bridegroom, Elmer J. Federalsburg McNeal, Lewis T. Denton Brown, William D. Goldsboro McKnatt, Alexander Greensboro Brown, James Earl Federalsburg McKnatt, Burt Greensboro Brumbaugh, Andrew I. Greensboro McCrea, William V. Federalsburg Brumbaugh, Isaac V. Denton McCoy, John W. Federalsburg Butler, Albert R. Preston Nashold, Walter McK Greensboro Burgess, William M. Preston Neal, Luther C. Federalsburg Burkey, Irvin W. Denton Neff, Paul James Ridgely Cahall, Edward C. Goldsboro Newell, George Arthur Federalsburg Cahall, Alfred G. Federalsburg Nichols, Lee Earl Federalsburg Callahan, Samuel C. Federalsburg Nickerson, Arthur (Col.) Federalsburg Cannon, Lacey (Col.) Federalsburg Orrell, Elwood C. Greensboro Cannon, Oscar H. (Col.) Federalsburg Parker, John (Col.) Ridgely Carroll, Clinton T. Preston Parrott, William M. Denton Carroll, John Russell Federalsburg Patchett, Edward I. Bethlehem Cauley, Harry W. Denton Pearson, Thomas C. Preston Chaffinch, Clarence E. Hobbs Perry, John Arthur Denton Chambers, Percy A. Federalsburg Perry, William M. Preston Clark, Alfred Carson Denton Perry, Charles Levin Preston Clevenger, Harland D. Federalsburg Perry, Joseph H. Ridgely Clough, James A. Henderson Perkins, Huntley E. (Col.) Greensboro Clough, Stephen W. Greensboro Pettijohn, William H. (Col.) Denton Closson, Orland Cecil Federalsburg Pendleton, Edmund T. Ridgely Cohey, Lewis Kennard Ridgely Pinkins, Roland (Col.) Federalsburg Cohee, Samuel B. Marydel Pinkine, Edward M. Denton Collins, Benj. F. (Col.) Federalsburg Plummer, James O. Denton Collins, William A. (Col.) Federalsburg Porter, Clayton S. Denton Cole, Walter Raymond Preston Price, Reuben H. Federalsburg Collins, Wilmer T. Federalsburg Pritchett, Enoch (Col.) Hillsboro Comegys, Carroll Hillsboro Pritchett, Loren S. Henderson Conner, Emory Claude Greensboro Pritchett, Ralph B. Greensboro Conley, Henry E. Henderson Rash, Thomas Geo. Ridgely Connor, Roland B. Greensboro Reaser, Fred (Col.) Federalsburg Corkran, Arthur W. Federalsburg Reed, Benjamin E. Preston Coulbourne, Ralph E. Federalsburg Reed, Emmons Harvey Denton Covington, Norris E. Federalsburg Reese, James Herbert Preston Cox, Earl Saxton Choptank Reese, John H. Preston Cox, Jerome R. Preston Reichelt, William P. Hobbs Craft, Herbert Paul Federalsburg Reynolds, Henry F. Preston Cuthberton, Zeb. (Col.) Ridgely Rhynas, Fred (Col.) Hillsboro Davidson, George W. Denton Rickards, William F. Ridgely Davis, Charles N. Federalsburg Robinson, Alexander (Col.) Ridgely Deen, Albert Lawrence Preston Robinson, Wright E. Marydel Dew, Harold James Federalsburg Roberts, Bion Ridgely Dhue, Noble J. Goldsboro Roe, Thomas Dukes Denton Dickerson, Joshua M. (Col.) Federalsburg Roe, William Shanley Denton Dill, Whiteley W. Denton Roher, Elmer C. Hobbs Downes, Marion H. Denton Roy, Cordy (Col.) Greensboro Downes, George W. (Col.) Denton Royer, Jonas Ridgely Downes, Robert W. Denton Ross, Arthur (Col.) Federalsburg Downing, Ira J. (Col.) Federalsburg Rouse, Benj. F. Goldsboro Dulin, Benjamin R. Goldsboro Russell, Horsey S. Greensboro Dukes, Levi Reyner Denton Satterfield, John H. (Col.) Denton Dyer, Norman (Col.) Denton Satterfield, Edwin C. Denton Eaton, Edw. Herman Denton Satterfield, Allie H. Denton Ebling, Daniel Ridgely Satterfield, Chas. S. (Col.) Denton Edge, William Robert Greensboro Satterfield, Nelson M. (Col.) Denton Edwards, Charlie Greensboro Saunders, Harry C. Goldsboro Ellwanger, David Howard Denton Scott, Fred Houston Denton Emerson, John H. Denton Scott, Clint Denton Emerson, Raymond E. Greensboro Scott, Herbert (Col.) Goldsboro Everngam, John L. Denton Scott, Manuel (Col.) Federalsburg Fields, Daniel Jr. Federalsburg Sculley, William A. Jr. Ridgely Fisher, Clarence W. (Col.) Ridgely Sculley, Arters Ridgely Fisher, George L. Ridgely Sharp, William R. (Col.) Preston Fisher, Charles Ridgely Sheubrooks, Herbert Marydel Fleming, William McN. Goldsboro Shipman, Stephen P. Denton Fletcher, William L. (Col.) Preston Shively, Horace D. Goldsboro Flowers, Henry Greensboro Short, Luther Hillsboro Fluharty, Arthur S. Preston Sisk, Albert Fletcher Preston Fountain, John W. Hickman, Del. Sisk, Joseph Gilbert Preston Fuchs, Conrad Williamsburg Smith, Olus Erie Goldsboro Gadow, Albert B. Preston Smith, Walter Roy Greensboro Garey, Edward S. Denton Smith, Wm. Henry (Col.) Ridgely Geisel, C. Robert Denton Smith, Lawrence Greensboro Geisel, Owen P. Denton Smith, Edw. Fields Federalsburg Gibson, Gilbert Preston Smith, Fred Norwood Hobbs Gordon, Roy Denton Smith, Earl James Federalsburg Gould, Harrison (Col.) Goldsboro Smith, Norman Earl Federalsburg Gould, James B. (Col.) Greensboro Smith, Oscar Denton Gray, Robert Hooper Goldsboro Smith, Selby Ray Ridgely Green, Edmond W. (Col.) Preston Smith, William (Col.) Preston Griffin, William M. (Col.) Greensboro Smith, William E. (Col.) Ridgely Griffith, Ernest F. Denton Sparklin, Daniel W. Federalsburg Gross, Fred (Col.) Denton Stafford, Willis Ray Denton Gwin, William J. Denton Stanford, Arthur L. (Col.) Greensboro Hammond, Silas (Col.) Ridgely Stanley, Harry L. (Col.) Federalsburg Hammond, Charles W. (Col.) Federalsburg Stanford, Wm. McK. (Col.) Preston Harden, John Wesley (Col.) Hillsboro Swann, Oscar Greensboro Harding, Harvey E. Bethlehem Thawley, Wesley E. Denton Harper, James M. Federalsburg Theis, Oscar H. Denton Harrington, Lawrence J. Greensboro Thomas, Harry (Col.) Ridgely Harvey, Charles T. Denton Tiller, Aaron Ridgely Harris, Norman Greensboro Tiller, Davis (Col.) Ridgely Harris, John T. Henderson Todd, Carlton Ward Choptank Haynes, Hayward (Col.) Preston Todd, Ralph Richson Federalsburg Heather, James T. Marydel Todd, Herbert R. Preston Henning, Edward Dukes Denton Todd, Roland Edw. Preston Henry, Robert W. (Col.) Goldsboro Totheroh, William E. Greensboro Henry, Mitchell F. (Col.) Goldsboro Towers, Roland O. Denton Henry, Joseph E. (Col.) Goldsboro Trazzare, Clifford T. Denton Hickey, George W. Marydel Tribbet, Edwin Greensboro Hicks, Clifton R. W. Hillsboro Tribbet, Harvey F. Greensboro Hignutt, Clarence E. Hobbs Tribbet, Sherman L. Denton Hignutt, Elmer E. Federalsburg Trice, Edwin Haynes Federalsburg Hines, Alonzo (Col.) Hillsboro Truitt, Herman H. Ridgely Hines, Lee Roy (Col.) Ridgely Truxon, Elijah B. (Col.) Denton Holland, Gilbert (Col.) Federalsburg Turner, Clarence Edw. (Col.) Federalsburg Holland, Waldon (Col.) Preston Turner, Charles (Col.) Federalsburg Hollingsworth, Henry T. Denton Turner, Oscar W. (Col.) Federalsburg Holt, William A. Hillsboro Turner, James Roland Federalsburg Hopkins, Harry Elmer Preston Vickery, Lawrence Hobbs Horn, Elmer Francis Preston Vonwille, Philip F. Greensboro Howell, Rossie M. Ridgely Warner, John (Col.) Ridgely Howell, William Robert Denton Ward, Joseph Francis Denton Hubbard, Chauncey T. (Col.) Preston Warren, Alonzo (Col.) Federalsburg Hubbard, Veda W. Greensboro Waters, George W. (Col.) Federalsburg Hubbard, William H. Greensboro Watkins, George A. (Col.) Greensboro Hubbard, Raymond T. (Col.) Federalsburg Waldron, Lee A. Choptank Hughes, Johnathan L. Denton Wayman, Henry (Col.) Hillsboro Hughes, Milton Wilby Goldsboro Webb, Benj. B. (Col.) Preston Hullinger, Frederick W. Federalsburg Werner, Ralph Preston Hullinger, Henry H. Federalsburg West, Carlton Preston Hunley, John (Col.) Ridgely West, Nelson (Col.) Baltimore Hurlock, Milton W. Denton Whiteley, Roy E. Choptank Hutson, Chester Arthur Greensboro Willin, Everett Edw. Federalsburg Hynson, William H. Denton Willin, Alton Adkins Federalsburg Irwin, Robert Stewart Denton Willin, William (Col.) Baltimore Jackson, Charles R. Greensboro Willin, Mark A.H. Jr. Oak Grove, Del. Jarman, Clinton B. Jr. Greensboro Wilson, William R. (Col.) Ridgely Jenkins, William T. (Col.) Ridgely Williamson, Charles F. Choptank Jester, Thomas L. Federalsburg Williams, John H. Federalsburg Johns, Benj. H. (Col.) Preston Williamson, Emmett McK. Federalsburg Johnson, James H. Denton Williams, Silver (Col.) Federalsburg Jones, Fred E. Hobbs Williams, Will (Col.) Denton Johnson, Richard (Col.) Ridgely Williamson, Ben C. Federalsburg Johnson, Benjamin F. Denton Williamson, Leonard F. Federalsburg Johns, Alfred Thos. (Col.) Preston Wilson, Carroll Denton Johnson, Emory (Col.) Federalsburg Wilson, Joh W. (Col.) Denton Johnson, James A. Federalsburg Wilson, Joseph (Col.) Marydel Jones, John W. (Col.) Preston Wisher, Linwood (Col.) Hobbs Jones, James Fred Choptank Woodward, James C. Greensboro Jopp, Samuel Taylor Denton Wright, Clarence A. Federalsburg Jopp, William Harry Denton Wright, Leonas V. Federalsburg Kauffman, Jacob F. Ridgely Wright, Olin B. Preston Kemp, William August Preston Wright, Leland C. Preston Kennedy, John M. Greensboro Wright, Albert (Col.) Ridgely Kenton, Hiram W. Greensboro Wright, Clarence (Col.) Hillsboro Kent, Joseph Federalsburg Wright, Robert R. Greensboro Kinnamon, Oscar Greensboro Wright, William E. Preston Kinnamon, Albert W. (Col.) Denton Wyatt, Vaughn Collins Greensboro Knox, James Henry Denton Young, Chris Edw. (Col.) Ridgely Knox, Lawrence Denton Zeigler, Frank D. Denton Koeneman, Herbert E. Greensboro Kusmaul, Christian Henderson
ROSTER OF ENLISTED MEN FROM CAROLINE COUNTY ENGAGED
OR IN PREPARATION FOR THE EUROPEAN WAR
Following is an explanation of the symbols found after some of the names:
(*) Dead (Ma.) Marne (a) was abroad (St. M.) St. Mihiel (c) served in Champagne district (M.) Montfaucon (v) Verdun (C.T.) Chateau Thierry (M.A.) Meuse-Argonne (N.) Navy (reg.) regular (O.A.) Oise Aisne (Arg.) Argonne forest (H.A.) Haute Alsace (B.W.) Belleau Woods For lack of information some titles are omitted.
Anderson, Eugene (a) Denton Adams, Howard J. Federalsburg Beall, Arthur C. (N.) Denton Bennington, Robert L. Ridgely Blades, L.J.K. Preston Blades, Capt. Webster, U.S. Navy Preston Blake, Cecil Denton Booker, Byron Goldsboro Breeding, Capt. Earl G., Medical Corps Federalsburg Bronwell, Ralph L. Denton Benson, Charles E. (N.) Preston Carroll, John Russell Federalsburg Bunting, Chaplain John J. Ridgely Brooks, 1st Lieut. F. T. Federalsburg Brower, 1st Lieut. C. C. (a) Federalsburg Butler, Raymond L. Denton Closson, Sargt. Eldon H. (C.) (M.A.) (O-A) Federalsburg Coulbourne, Carl N. (a) (V) (M.A.) Hobbs Curz, Walter R. (a) Federalsburg Cox, 2nd Lieut. Jerome (a) Preston Carroll, Sargt. J. Russell (a) Federalsburg Closson, Corp. Orland C. (a) Federalsburg Clark, Pierce Greensboro Clough, Steven (a) (reg.) Greensboro Cortelyou, Clifford (a) Goldsboro Cortelyou, Wilbur (a) Goldsboro Dill, Norman H. Denton Deakyne, 1st Lieut. Luther S. (a) Denton Dulin, Virginia (a) (nurse) Preston Dulin, Carleton (*) Preston Davis, William Ridgely Deen, Sargt. Albert S. (a) Preston Darling, John (a) (A.) (Arg.) (V) Preston Duvall, Robert (a) Preston Deen, Norman (a) Federalsburg Downes, 1st Lieut. J. R., Medical Corp. Preston Davis, Leon (a) (M.A.) (H.A.) Federalsburg Deen, Levin (a) Federalsburg Drum, James (a) Federalsburg Davis, Henry (a) (*) (B.W.) Federalsburg Dukes, Sargt. Louis R. (a) (H.M.) (V) Denton Davis, Capt. Dudley W. Ridgely Evans, Raymond E. Greensboro Eddington, Sargt. John R. (a) Federalsburg Elderdice, Sargt. James R. (a) Federalsburg Edwards, Thomas (N.) Preston Fisher, Major Roland P. (a) Denton Fooks, Herbert C. (a) Preston Fountain, Herbert Ridgely Garey, Sargt. William Denton France, 1st Lieut. G. H. (a) Federalsburg Fountain, Sargt. Mag. Sydney (a) Ridgely Fountain, Sargt. Charles Ridgely Fowler, William (a) Greensboro Fields, Daniel Jr. (a) (*) Federalsburg Gray, William J. Goldsboro Gadow, Carl W. (a) (M.A.) Preston Green, Capt. J. Woodall (a) Denton Griffith, Clarence Greensboro Harper, Corp. Floyd H. (*) Federalsburg Henry, Mitchell F. Goldsboro Hunt, Corp. Ralph (a) Federalsburg Holleck, Jerry C. (a) Preston Holmes, Luther B. Denton Hutson, Corp. Alfred Greensboro Hurlock, Houston (a) Federalsburg Jefferson, Sargt. Donald E. (a) Federalsburg Johns, Alfred Thomas (col.) (a) Preston Jarman, Christopher Ridgely Jeavons, Allen Federalsburg Johnson, Corp. J. Arthur (a) Federalsburg Jones, Noble (a) Greensboro Jarman, Clayton (a) Greensboro Klotz, William (a) Ridgely Kabelka, Otto (a) (M.A.) (St. M.) Henderson Keehan, Howard (a) (Arg.) (B.W.) (A.M.) Ridgely Kelley, Elmert T. Preston Kornrumpf, James A. Greensboro Lednum, Ralph C. Preston Ludwig, J. Henry (*) (N.) Ridgely Lynch, Lee Henry Ridgely Long, James D. Denton Lankford, Corp. Claude (a) Preston Lord, George (a) Federalsburg Lane, Irvin (aviation) Ridgely Medford, Corp. Frank P. (a) Marydel Medford, Lieut. Wm. Tyler (a) Marydel Mowbray, Alderson Federalsburg Madera, Maj. Dr. J.C. (reg.) Ridgely Morris, Capt. Irvin (reg.) Preston Miller, Bugler Joseph (a) Federalsburg McConnell, Corp. Vaughn (a) (Toule Sector) Preston McConnell, Corp. Philip (a) (C) (Ma.) (A.M.) Preston Merriken, 2nd Lieut. Wilbur (a) Federalsburg Mowbray, 2nd Lieut. C. Brown (*) (a) Federalsburg Meredith, Sargt. Alvin (*) (a) (C.T.) Federalsburg Meredith, Leslie (a) Henderson Magnus, William (a) Greensboro Neal, William H. Preston Nichols, Sargt. Winfield T. (a) (A) (C) (St. M.) (Arg.) Denton Noble, Maj. John W. (a) Preston Noble, Capt. Houston (marine) (a) (Arg.) Federalsburg Noble, Corp. Robert K. (a) (Houte) (A) Federalsburg Noble, Lieut. Wm. D., Medical Corps Preston Nuttle, Harold C. (a) (St. M.) (C.) (M.A.) Denton Neal, Corp. Francis W. (a) Federalsburg Noble, Brig. Gen. Robert H. (a) (reg.) (Arg.) Federalsburg Novak, Roland (a) Federalsburg Perry, Joseph H. (*) Ridgely Pells, James N. Denton Plummer, Charles Denton Pearsaul, Edward (N.) Ridgely Pinder, Frank Greensboro Pippin, Lieut. Noble Henderson Poore, Lieut. Goodwin (a) Greensboro Poore, Byron (a) Greensboro Pritchett, Lorain (a) Henderson Rice, Robert J. (a) (Ma.) Denton Ring, Frank J. Federalsburg Ricketts, Loyd (a) Federalsburg Ross, Ailtrum Federalburg Saulsbury, Sargt. Irvin T. (a) Ridgely Schlegel, Ernest F. Denton Slacum, Louis H. Federalsburg Smith, Walter R. Greensboro Spence, Clarence E. Denton Stevens, Lynne E. (a) (c) (St. M.) (Chat.) Denton Summerfield, Maj. J. Henry (a) (St. M.) (Arg.) (V) Denton Sisk, Edwin K. (a) Preston Shepherd, Pierce (a) Federalsburg Sharp, Preston (*) (N) Ridgely Smith, Ernest (Y.M.C.A) Ridgely Spence, Perry (N.) Ridgely Smith, Alexander, Jr. (a) (Arg.) (B.W.) Ridgely Swing, Thompson (a) Ridgely Schrieber, Sargt. John B. (a) Greensboro Trice, Clyde Denton Travers, Floyd (N.) Greensboro Taylor, 1st Lieut. Dr. F.F. (a) Ridgely Trice, Corp. Arthur (a) Preston Vonwelle, Philip (*) (a) Hillsboro Wright, Clarence Greensboro White, Albert Ridgely Willoughby, Richard Maurice Federalsburg Wright, Walter T. Greensboro Wright, Charles P. Federalsburg Wilson, Henry (N.) Denton Wyatt, Sargt. William W. (aviation) Ridgely Wilson, Alice (nurse) Ridgely Waterson, David (*) (a) Greensboro Waterson, Joseph (a) Greensboro Weaver, Henry Greensboro Wheatley, Wilbur (a) Federalsburg Wheatley, Guy (a) Federalsburg Wright, Kemp (*) (a) Federalsburg Wright, Lenos (a) Federalsburg Williams, Perce Federalsburg White, Sargt. Everett (a) (V) (A.H.) Federalsburg
THE GREAT WAR
List of Caroline County men and women who either in service
or in preparation made the Supreme Sacrifice.MARY TODD
NORMAN WESLEY BAYNARD
WILLIAM CARELTON DULIN
DANIEL FIELDS, JR.
WILLIAM McKNUTT FLEMING
JOHN WESLEY HARDEN
FRED R. JUMP
J. HENRY LUDWIG
CHARLES BROWN MOWBRAY
JOSEPH H. PERRY
NORMAN EARLE SMITH
ROLAND EDWARD TODD
PHILIP F. VONVILLE
VAUGHN C. WYATT
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