Ireland's History in Maps


        1600         1800
Maps: BC . 100 . 150 . 200 . 300 . 400 . 500 . 600 . 700 . 800 . 900 . 1000 . 1100 . 1200 . 1300 . 1400 . 1500 . 1600 . 1700 . 1800 . 1845

Historical Reference:   Old Irish Kingdoms and Clans -- Old Irish Surnames


Following the massacres and confiscations of property by Cromwell in 1653, the landed gentry of Ireland had rapidly converted from that of the Irish and Old English (Anglo-Irish) to that of the Protestant New English. Lands in the provinces of Leinster, Munster and Ulster were given to veterans of the Parliamentary Army and adventurers under Cromwell and Ireton. For those who would accept transplantation, Irish lands were reserved in the province of Connacht, excluding coastal lands and most of County Sligo and Leitrim.

Following the collapse of the Cromwellian regime in December 1659, Charles II was proclaimed King after restoration of the Monarchy in England. His policies in Ireland resulted in further land settlement during the 1660's.

By 1685 James II ascended the throne. James was a Roman Catholic and during his reign, a more pro-Catholic policy was enacted in Ireland. As a result of Protestant nervousness, the English removed James from the throne in 1688. The Irish prepared to rebel and invited the ousted King James to lead them. James borrowed troops from France and landed in Ireland in 1689, the year that William (III) and Mary ascend to the throne in England. The Catholic Irish, comprising the vast majority of the population, had supported the Jacobite (King James) cause. In June, 1690 William III of England landed at Carrickfergus to face the Jacobite forces under James II and the Irish.

The English defeated James on the banks of the Boyne on July 11, 1690, and he fled to France to his benefactor, Louis XIV of France. James's forces suffered further defeat the following year at the Battle of Aughrim. The war ended with the Treaty of Limerick in 1691. The terms of the Treaty were satisfactory to the Irish, but were subsequently dishonoured and Limerick became known as the city of the violated treaty. The Treaty of Limerick was not ungenerous to the defeated Catholics, but they were soon to suffer from penal laws designed to reinforce Protestant ascendancy throughout Irish life. The Battle of the Boyne marked the beginning of Protestant control over Catholics in Ireland. Its anniversary is celebrated by Protestants in Northern Ireland. The Treaty of Limerick marked the "flight of the Wild Geese" where many of the old Irish and Old English military and gentry seek their fortune in other European countries.

In 1695 the beginning of penal legislation is enacted against the Irish Catholics and Dissenters in Ireland. Between 1695 and 1728 a series of acts is passed which forbade Irish Catholics from practicing their faith and the vast majority of wealthy Catholics were stripped of their wealth, their positions, their estates and their homes, leaving them virtually paupers. The penal acts prevent Catholics from bearing arms and owning horses worth more than 5. They restricted their rights to education, stop them from buying land, and on death, Catholic property must be divided among all sons. Catholics are banned from serving in the army, holding public office, entering the legal profession, becoming MPs or voting. In 1720 an Act declared the right of the British Parliament to pass laws for Ireland.

As a little known event to add to the troubles in Ireland in the middle of the eighteenth century, a famine occured in 1739-40 which was said to have caused nearly 400,000 deaths to occur in Ireland.

Later in the century revolutionary fervor, ignited by rebellions in France and the newly formed United States of America, spurred new rebellions in the 1790s aimed at undermining the Protestant conquest of Ireland.


Futher Reference:
Act of Settlement
The Plantation of Ulster
Battle of the Boyne
Battle of the Boyne
Ireland History, at Ireland on the Net.

        1600         1800


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D Walsh
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